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Open Access: glossary

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Accepted version
: Final, peer-reviewed version of an article, before the publisher’s layout and typesetting is applied; also known as Final author manuscript or Post-print version.  Depositing this version in the institutional repository helps to make the content widely available.  Compare Article of record or Publisher PDF/version.

Advance online publication: Some publishers enable articles to be published online as soon as they have been fully copy-edited and proof-checked, ahead of the final, ‘printed’ version.   This version of the article is in exactly the same format as they appear in the final issue except for page numbering.   If applicable, any embargo periods pertaining to Open Access start from this release date.  Also known as Early or First online publication.
 
Article of record: Version of an article that appears on the publisher’s website upon publication, including the publisher’s copy-editing, proof corrections, layout and typesetting; also known as the Publisher PDF/version.  Compare Accepted/Post-print version or Final author manuscript.

Advance online publication: Many publishers enable articles to be published online as soon as they have been fully copy-edited and proof-checked, ahead of the final, ‘printed’ versions.   This version of the article is in exactly the same format as it appears in the final issue except for page numbering.   If applicable, any Embargo periods pertaining to Open Access start from this release date.  Also known as Early or First online publication.

Article Processing Charge (APC): Fee paid to a journal publisher by the author, author’s institution or funder, for Gold Open Access.

Aston Research Explorer (powered by PURE): The name of the portal serving to showcase all Aston’s research activities which incorporates the institutional repository.  Depositing in Aston Research Explorer (powered by PURE) helps to make your research widely available.  And this is where you need to deposit your articles for the next REF.

AURA: Aston University Research Archive.  The previous name for Aston University's institutional repository.  All content previously held in AURA is now in Aston Research Explorer (powered by PURE).  PURE remains the means by which authors populate Aston's institutional repository.

Bibliographic record: The bibliographic description of a digital publication.  Search engines crawl the internet to find documents and, depending on the quality of the metadata, they list the 'hits'.  The high-quality metadata for items deposited in repositories enables the documents to be easily discoverable.  Also known as Publication record or Metadata.

CC BY: Creative Commons Attribution Licence (3.0).  This licence grants permission to others to distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon a work, even commercially, as long as they credit the rightsholder(s) for the original creation.  It is one of the most accommodating of the Creative Commons licences, and the one that RCUK, the Wellcome Trust and some other funders require.

COAF: Charity Open Access Fund.  Comprised of six medical research charities - Arthritis Research UK, Breast Cancer Campaign, the British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, Leukaemia & Lymphoma Research, and the Wellcome Trust.  Research funded by any of these charities must meet their Open Access requirements.  See COAF (Wellcome Trust).

Corresponding author: The author responsible for manuscript correction, correspondence during submission, handling of revisions and re-submission of the revised manuscript.  On acceptance of the manuscript, the corresponding author is responsible for co-ordinating any application for payment of an Gold Open Access Article Processing Charge (APC)

Creative Commons: Global organisation that offers legal tools, including Creative Commons licences, that rightsholders can use to offer certain usage rights to the public.  See Creativecommons.org.uk.  

Early/First online publication: Many publishers enable articles to be published online as soon as they have been fully copy-edited and proof-checked, ahead of the final, ‘printed’ versions.   This version of the article is in exactly the same format as it appears in the final issue except for page numbering.   If applicable, any Embargo periods pertaining to Open Access start from this release date.  Also known as Advance online publication.

Embargo: A delay period imposed by a publisher on making full text articles available online, eg. in an institutional or subject repositoryEmbargoes can vary from 6 months to 2 years after publication (including Early online publication) in some cases. Sometimes the publisher's embargo conflicts with a funder's requirement, so it is worth checking this before you publish.  See also Green Open Access.

EPrints: The platform used until 2012 to manage Aston's research repository, AURA. Although Aston Research Explorer replaced AURA, ePrints is being used in the background for an interim period to support some aspects of Aston Research Explorer.

Europe PubMed Central (Europe PMC): A life sciences and biomedical research subject repository.  The Wellcome Trust, the Medical Research Council (MRC) and most other UK biomedical funders require copies of funded articles to be deposited in Europe PMC within 6 months of publication.  The USA-based PubMed Central is the repository containing global content.

Final author manuscript: Accepted, peer-reviewed version of an article, before the publisher’s layout and typesetting is applied; also known as Accepted or Post-print version.  Depositing this version in the institutional repository helps to make the content widely available.  Compare Article of record or Publisher PDF/version.

Gold Open Access: Immediate Open Access of a journal article on the publisher's website, usually in exchange for a fee.  See Article Processing Charge (APC).

Green Open Access: Depositing research output, including journal articles and published conference papers, in an institutional or subject repository.  The version of an article deposited is normally the Final author manuscript, also known as the Accepted/Post-print version.  Depositing this version in the institutional repository helps to make the content widely available.

Hybrid journals: Some journals are purely Open Access, but others offer a 'hybrid' model - where subscriptions are still required for access to most of the content, but a fee can be paid to make individual articles available as Open AccessCompare Open Access journals.

Institutional repository: Online digital archive of an institution’s research publications. See Aston Research Explorer (powered by PURE).

Metadata: Information held as a description of stored data. Typically, the metadata of a publication record is its bibliographic details.  Search engines crawl the internet to find sources and list the 'hits' in order of richness of the metadata.  High-quality metadata for items in repositories increases discoverability.  Also known as Publication record or Bibliographic record.

Open Access: Making research publications, principally journal articles, freely available online with all barriers to access removed.  Open Access is achieved through Gold Open Access journals and journal articles, and Green  archiving in institutional repositories such as Aston Research Explorer (powered by PURE).

Open Access journals: Journals in which all articles are Open Access. An Open Access publication fee is payable for every article, and articles are usually licensed under a Creative Commons licence, eg. CC BY.  Examples include PLOS and BioMed Central journals.  Compare Subscription/Hybrid journals.

Post-print version: Final, accepted, peer-reviewed version of an article, before the publisher’s layout and typesetting is applied; also known as Accepted version or Final author manuscript.  Depositing this version in the institutional repository helps to make the content widely available.  Compare Article of record or Publisher PDF/version.

Pre-print version: The version of an article before being peer-reviewed. They include draft early versions, works in progress and submitted versions to a journal for peer-review.  Some publishers specify only this version can be deposited in an institutional repository.

Publication fees: Open Access publication fees in Open Access/subscription/hybrid journals, ie. Article Processing Charges, and/or non-Open Access fees such as colour and page printing charges.

Publication record: The bibliographic description of a digital publication.  Search engines crawl the internet to find documents and, depending on the quality of the metadata, they list the 'hits'.  The high-quality metadata for items deposited in repositories enables the documents to be easily discoverable.  Also known as Metadata or Bibliographic record.

Publisher agreement: When you publish your paper you will probably sign a 'publisher agreement’.   This document states your rights as an author, so it is always worthwhile keeping a copy.  On the publisher agreement it should state whether you can make your article available on Aston Research Explorer (powered hy PURE).

Publisher PDF/version: Version of an article that appears on the publisher’s website upon publication, including the publisher’s copy-editing, proof corrections, layout and typesetting; also known as the Article of record.  Compare Accepted/Post-print version or Final author manuscript.

Publisher prepayment scheme: Arrangement whereby an institution pays a lump sum to a publisher to cover Article Processing Charges, instead of being invoiced for each paper.  The publisher usually offers a discount; Aston currently has prepayment schemes with BioMed Central, Elservier, Sage and Wiley.

PURE: The current research information system used by Aston to record and track all our research activities, including publications. Aston authors can upload their publication details and the accepted/post-print version of their papers to PURE which will populate Aston Research Explorer.

RCUK: Research Councils UK, comprising: Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC), Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), Medical Research Council (MRC), Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), and Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC).  RCUK now mandates for Open Access publication of journal articles and published conference papers - see RCUK.

REF: Research Excellence Framework.  The UK system for assessing the quality of research in HE institutions.  The next REF is expected to take place in 2020, and will have an emphasis an Open Access publishing requirements. See HEFCE.

Subject repository: Digital archive of Open Access research output in particular subject areas.  Europe PubMed Central (for life sciences and biomedicine), arXiv (for science and statistics) and RCUK's Gateway to Research (for all subjects; now incorporating the ESRC Research Catalogue) are the best-known.

Subscription journals: Journals published under a traditional subscription model, whereby institutions and individuals pay an annual fee, or users pay per view, to access content.  Subscription journals usually offer a Gold Open Access option - these are sometimes called hybrid journals.  This means that an Article Processing Charge is paid to make an individual article Open Access.  Compare Open Access journals.

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