.

Professor Carl H. Schwalbe

 

Emeritus Professor of Medicinal Chemistry


Aston Pharmacy School

School of Life & Health Sciences

Aston University
Aston Triangle
Birmingham B4 7ET
UK

email: c.h.schwalbe@aston.ac.uk
telephone: +44 (0) 121 204 4009
fax: +44 (0) 121 204 5142

Member of the Medicines Research Unit

Member of research strand: 'Development of novel drugs, formulations and tissues to support healthy ageing' - Aston Research Centre for Healthy Ageing 

Member of the Pharmacy and Biology Teaching Programmes

Image of Dr Carl Schwalbe

Career History

Research Interests

  • Determination of molecular structure by X-ray crystallography
  • Theoretical calculation of electronic and conformational properties
  • Relation of structural and electronic features to activity of drugs
  • Correlation of solid-state intermolecular interactions with physico-chemical properties of drugs in solid dosage forms

Recent Publications

  • Lion CJ, Vasselin DA, Schwalbe CH, Matthews CS, Stevens MFG, Westwell AD. (2005)
    Novel reaction products from the hypervalent iodine oxidation of hydroxylated stilbenes and isoflavones.
    Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
    3,(21) 3996-4001
  • Biswas S, Mitra K, Schwalbe CH, Lucas CR, Chattopadhyay SK, Adhikary B. (2005)
    Synthesis and characterisation of some Mn(II) and Mn(III) complexes of N, N’-o-phenylenebis(salicylideneimine)(LH2) and N,N’-o-
    phenylenebis(5-bromosalicylideneimine)(L ‘H-2). Crystal structures of [Mn(L)(H2O)(C104)], [Mn(L)(NCS)] and an infinite linear
    chain of [Mn(L)(OAc)].
    Inorganica Chimica Acta
    358 (8) :2473-2481.
  • Berry JM, Bradshaw TD, Fichtner I, Ren RB, Schwalbe CH, Wells G, Chew EH, Stevens MFG, Westwell AD (2005)
    Quinols as novel therapeutic agents.2.4-(1-arylsulfonylindol-2-yl)-4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ones and related agents as potent and selective antitumour agents.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
    48 (2) :639-644
  • Zhao K, Wang Y, Zhao L, Ji Z, Li D, Tisdale M J and Schwalbe CH. (2004)
    Synthesis and cytotoxicity of a novel 1-alkylaminomethyl-2, 4-diaryl-butadiene-1, 3 fragment integrated within cyclohex(pent)enes.
    Il Farmaco,
    59 373 -379
  • Yu F-L, Schwalbe CH and Watkin D. (2004)
    Hydantoin and hydrogen-bonding patterns in hydantoin derivatives.
    Acta Cryst
    C60, o713 –o716
  • Naskar S, Biswas S, Mishra D, Adhikary B, Falvello LR, Soler T, Schwalbe CH, Chattopadhyay SK (2004)
    Studies on the relative stabilities of Mn(II) and Mn(III) in complexes with N402 donor environments : crystal structures of [Mn(pybzhz)(2)]
    and [Mn(Ophsal)(imzH)(2)]C104 (pybzhz=N-(benzoyl)-N’-(picolinylidene)hydrazine, Ophsal=N, N’-o-phenylenebis (salicylideneimine),imzH=imidazole)
    Inorganica Chimica Acta
    357 (14)4257-4264.
  • Edafiogho IO, Denny BJ, Schwalbe CH, Lowe PR (2003)
    X-ray crystallographic and theoretical studies of an anticonvulsant enaminone: Methyl 4-(4’-bromophenyl)amino-6-methyl-2-oxocyclohex-3-en-1-oate.
    Medical principles and practice
    12(4) 237-242
  • Gokhale, N., Padhye, S., Rathbone, D., Billington, D., Lowe, P., Schwalbe, C. and Newton, C. (2001)
    The crystal structure of first copper(II) complex of a pyridine-2-carboxamidrazone – a potential antitumor agent.
    Inorganic Chemistry Communications
    4, 26-29.
  • Maji, M., Sengupta, P., Chattopadhyay, S.K., Mostafa, G., Schwalbe, C.H. and Ghosh, S. (2001)
    An unusual ruthenium (II) complex of 2-(2-pyridyl)benzothiazole.
    J. Coord. Chem.
    54, 13-24.
  • Billington, D.C., Lowe, P.R., Rathbone, D.L. and Schwalbe, C.H. (2000)
    A new amidrazone derivative with antimycobacterial activity.
    Acta Cryst., Sect. C,
    C56, 211-212.
  • Lowe, P.R. and Schwalbe, C.H. (1998)
    Classical packing and stacking in 6-phenyl-5-azauracil.
    Acta Cryst., Sect. C,
    C54, 1936-1938.
  • Hagan, D. J., Chan, D., Schwalbe, C. H. and Stevens, M. F. G. (1998)
    Antitumour polycyclic acridines. Part 3. A two-step conversion of 9-azidoacridine to 7H-pyrido[4,3,2-kl]acridines by Graebe-Ullmann thermolysis of substituted 9-(1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)acridines.
    J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. I
    , 1998, 915-923.
  • Sood G, Schwalbe CH, Fraser W, (1998)
    9-(carboxymethyl)-6-chloropurine ethyl ester
    Acta Crystallographica Section C-crystal structure communications
    54 1907-1909, Part 12
  • Sood G, Schwalbe CH, Fraser W (1998)
    7-(carboxymethyl)-6-chloropurine ethyl ester.
    Acta Crystallographica Section C-crystal structure communications
    54 1316-1318, Part 9
  • Solomons KRH, Freeman S, Schwalbe CH, Shears SB, Nelson DJ, Xie WW, Bruzik KS, Kaetzel MA (1998)
    Synthesis of D-1, 2-dideoxy-1, 2-diffuoro-myo-inositol 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate and its enantiomer as analogues of myo-inositol 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate.
    Carbohydrate Research
    309 (4) 337-343
  • Sood G, Schwalbe CH, Fraser W (1998)
    6-amino-9-(carboxymethyl)-2-methoxypurine methyl ester
    Acta Crystallographica Section C-crystal structure communications
    54 659-661, Part 5
  • Sood G, Schwalbe CH, Fraser W. (1998)
    Diethyl 3, 7-hypoxanthyldiacetate.
    Acta Crystallographica Section C-crystal structure communications
    54 114-116, Part 1
  • Wallis, M.P., Schwalbe, C.H. and Fraser, W. (1997)
    Synthesis and stability of oligonucleotides containing N4 aralkyl-substituted cytosine bases.
    Nucleosides & Nucleotides
    16, 2053-2068.
  • Chugtai, J.H., Gardiner, J.M., Harris, S.G., Parsons, S., Rankin, D.W.H. and Schwalbe, C.H. (1997)
    New homochiral ketoalcohols from aldol reactions of (�)-isomenthone and reversal of diastereoselectivity.
    Tetrahedron Lett.
    38, 9043-9046.
  • Spiers, I.D., Schwalbe, C.H., Blake, A.J., Solomons, K.R.H. and Freeman, S. (1997)
    Structure of (�) 1,2;4,5-di-O-cyclohexylidene myo-inositol and synthesis of myo-inositol-3-phosphate via its phosphorylation with (2R, 4S, 5R)-2-chloro-3,4-dimethyl-5-phenyl-1,3,2-oxazaphospholidin-2-one.
    Carbohydrate Research
    302, 43-51.
  • Middleton, D. A., Robins, R., Feng, X., Levitt, M. H., Spiers, I. D., Schwalbe, C. H., Reid, D. G. and Watts, A. (1997)
    The conformation of an inhibitor bound to the gastric proton pump.
    FEBS Lett.
    410, 269-274.
  • Stevens, M.F.G., Philip, K.S., Rathbone, D.L., O'Shea, D.M., Queener, S.F., Schwalbe, C.H. and Lambert, P.A. (1997)
    Structural studies on bioactive compounds. 28. Selective activity of triazenyl-substituted pyrimethamine derivatives against Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase.
    J. Med. Chem.
    40, 1886-1893.
  • Sood G, Schwalbe CH, Fraser W (1997)
    2,6-diamino-9-(carboxymethyl)purine ethyl ester.
    Acta Crystallographica Section C-crystal structure communications
    53 1624-1626, Part 11
  • Bradley RF, Schwalbe CH, Ross KC, Fraser W, Freeman S (1997)
    6-nitrophthalide.
    Acta Crystallographica Section C-crystal structure communications
    53 1626-1628, Part 11
  • Hagan DJ, GimenezArnau E, Schwalbe CH, Stevens MFG. (1997)
    Antitumour polycyclic acridines.1.Synthesis of 7H-pyrido-and 8H-quino-[4,3,2-k1]acridines by Graebe-Ullmann thermolysis of 9-(1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)acridines:
    application of differential scanning calorimetry to predict optimum cyclisation conditions.
    Journal of the Chemical Society-Perkin Transactions
    1 (18): 2739-2746
  • Spiers ID, Schwalbe CH, Blake AJ, Solomons KRH, Freeman S. (1997)
    Structure of (+/-)-1,2;4,5-di-O-cyclohexylidene myo-inositol and synthesis of myo-inositol 3-phosphate via its phosphorylation with (2R,4S,5R)-2-chloro-3,
    4-dimethyl-5-phenyl-1, 3,2-oxazaphospholidin-2-one.
    Carbohydrate research
    302 (1-2) :43-51
  • Middleton DA, Robins R, Feng XL, Levitt MH, Spiers ID, Schwalbe CH, Reid DG, Watts A (1997)
    The conformation of an inhibitor bound to the gastric proton pump.
    FEBS Letters
    410 (2-3) :269-274
  • Sood G, Schwalbe CH, Fraser W. (1997)
    2,6-diazido-9-(carboxymethyl)purine methyl ester
    Acta Crystallographica Section C-crystal structure communications
    53 608-610, Part 5
  • Stevens MFG, Phillip KS, Rathbone DL, O’Shea DM, Queener SF, Schwalbe CH, Lambert PA. (1997)
    Structural studies on bioactive compounds.28.Selective activity of triazenyl-substituted pyrimethamine derivatives against Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate
    reductase.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
    40 (12):1886-1893
  • Spiers ,I. D., Schwalbe, C. H. and Freeman, S. (1996)
    3,4,5,6-Tetra-O-benzyl-cis-1,2-O-cyclohexylidene myo inositol.
    Acta Cryst., Sect. C,
    C52, 2575-2578.
  • Denny, B. J. and Schwalbe, C. H. (1996)
    Preferred conformations of cyclophosphamide: a theoretical study.
    Pharmaceutical Sciences
    2, 29-32.
  • Spiers, I.D., Barker, C.J., Chung, S-K, Chang, Y-T, Freeman, S., Gardiner, J.M., Hirst, P.H., Lambert, P.A., Michell, R.H., Poyner, D.R., Schwalbe, C.H., Smith, A.W. and Solomons, K.R.H. (1996)
    Synthesis and iron binding studies of myo-inositol 1,2,3-trisphosphate and (�)-myo-inositol 1,2-bisphosphate and iron-binding studies of all myo-inositol tetrakisphosphates.
    Carbohydrate Research
    282, 81-99.
  • Lowe PR, Schwalbe CH, (1994)
    DCMCIT, an analog of the antitumour drugs mitozolomide and temozolomide.
    Acta Crystallographica Section C-crystal structure communications
    50 1629-1631, Part 10
  • Chattopadhyay D, Chattopadhyay SK, Lowe PR, Schwalbe CH, Mazumder SK, Rana A, Ghosh S (1993)
    Synthesis and structural studies of tetraaquacopper (11) Diaquabis(Malonato)Cuprate (11)
    Journal of the Chemical Society- Dalton transactions
    (6):913-916
  • Chattopadhyay D, Majumdar SK, Lowe P, Schwalbe CH, Chattopadhyay SK, Ghosh S (1991)
    Synthesis, crystal-structure and chemical-reactivity of dichloro(thiosemicarbazide)copper (11)
    Journal of the Chemical Society-Dalton transactions
    (8): 2121-2124

Reviews

  • Lattmann E, Sattayasai J, Lattmann P, Billington DC, Schwalbe CH, Boonprakob J, Airarat W, Singh H, Offel M and Staaf A. (2007)
    Anti-depressant and anti-nociceptive effects of 1,4-benzodiazepine-2-ones based cholecystokinin (CCK2) antagonists.
    Drug Discov. Ther.
    1, 45-56.
  • Cody V and Schwalbe CH. (2006)
    Structural charcteristics of antifolate dihydrofolate reductase enzyme interactions.
    Crystallography Reviews
    12, 301-333
  • Schwalbe CH and Cody V (2006)
    Structural characteristics of small-molecule antifolate compounds.
    Crystallography Reviews,
    12267-300
  • Schwalbe CH. (2005)
    From small molecule structures to medicines
    Crystallography Reviews
    11 , 49-60.

Conference Presentations

  • Schwalbe, C.H., Lowe, P.R. and Stevens, M.F.G. (2002)
    Geometry and hydrogen bonding in two anti-cancer benzothiazoles.
    Poster 162 presented at the 139th BPS Conference, Manchester, September 2002. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 54 (Suppl.), S-69.
  • Schwalbe, C.H., Sandbhor, U., Rathbone, D.L., Billington, D.C. and Padhye, S. (2002)
    Hydrogen bonding patterns in phenolic pyridin-2-yl-methylhydrazones
    Poster presented at the International Union of Crystallography meeting, Geneva, August 2002, Acta Cryst., Sect. A (Suppl), A58, C329.
  • Yu, F. and Schwalbe, C.H. (2002)
    Structure of hydantoin from a twinned crystal.
    Poster presented at the British Crystallographic Association Spring Meeting, Nottingham, March 2002.
  • Lowe, P.R., Schwalbe, C.H. and Stevens, M.F.G. (2002)
    Crystal structures of two anti-cancer benzothiazole derivatives.
    Poster presented at the British Crystallographic Association Spring Meeting, Nottingham, March 2002.
  • Bajwa, G.S., Schwalbe, C.H. and Rathbone, D.L. (2001)
    Measured and calculated UV spectra for antimicrobial carboxamidrazones.
    Poster presented at the 138th BPS Conference, Glasgow, September 2001. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 53 (Suppl.), 231.
  • Caddick, J., Schwalbe, C.H. and Rathbone, D.L. (2001)
    Quantitative structure-activity calculations for antimalarial compounds related to artemisin.
    Poster presented at the 138th BPS Conference, Glasgow, September 2001. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 53 (Suppl.), 232.
  • Wang, Y., Shan, B., Qureshi, A. and Schwalbe, C.H. (2001)
    Molecular modelling and QSAR studies and synthesis of cyclothialidine analogues as DNA gyrase inhibitors.
    Poster presented at the 138th BPS Conference, Glasgow, September 2001. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 53 (Suppl.), 238.
  • Khayat, Z. and Schwalbe, C.H. (2001)
    Stereoelectronic influences on the geometry of beta-lactams.
    Poster presented at the American Crystallographic Association Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, July 2001.
  • Khayat, Z. and Schwalbe, C.H. (2001)
    Stereoelectronic effects on the geometry of beta-lactams.
    Poster presented at the British Crystallographic Association Annual Meeting, Reading, April 2001.
  • Schwalbe, C.H., Rathbone, D.L., Tims, K.J., Billington, D.C., Sandbhor, U. and Padhye, S. (2000)
    Effects of functional group deletion on structural features and antimycobacterial activity in pyridylcarboxamidrazones”.
    Poster presented at the 137th BPS Conference, Birmingham, September 2000. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 52 (Suppl.), 105.
  • Chaudary, S.H., Lambert, P.A. and Schwalbe, C.H. (2000)
    Calculations of the effectiveness of functional groups for aluminium chelation.
    Poster presented at the 137th BPS Conference, Birmingham, September 2000. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 52 (Suppl.), 106.
  • Chaudary, S.H., Lambert, P.A. and Schwalbe, C.H. (2000)
    Molecular orbital calculations on aluminium complexes
    Poster presented at the 137th BPS Conference, Birmingham, September 2000. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 52 (Suppl.), 223.
  • Chaudary, S.H., Lambert, P.A. and Schwalbe, C.H. (2000)
    A U87-MG model for evaluating potential chelators of aluminium
    Poster presented at the 137th BPS Conference, Birmingham, September 2000. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 52 (Suppl.), 232.
  • Schwalbe, C.H., Rathbone, D.L., Billington, D.C., Sandbhor, U. and Padhye, S. (2000)
    Crystal structures of (hetero)aromatic hydrazine derivatives.
    Poster presented at the American Crystallographic Association Annual Meeting, St. Paul, MN, July 2000.
  • Schwalbe, C.H., Rathbone, D.L., Billington, D.C. and Sandbhor, U. (2000)
    Crystal structures of (hetero)aromatic hydrazine derivatives.
    Poster presented at the British Crystallographic Association Spring Meeting, Edinburgh, April 2000.
  • Schwalbe, C.H., Gallagher, C., Lowe, P.R., Billington, D. C., Rathbone, D. L. and Tims, K. J. (1999)
    Comparison of structural features and antimycobacterial activity in isomeric pyridylcarboxamidrazones
    Poster presented at the 136th BPS Conference, Cardiff, September 1999. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 51 (Suppl.), 262.
  • Chaudary, S.H., Lambert, P.A. and Schwalbe, C.H. (1999)
    A quantum mechanical approach towards the rational design of suitable ligands for aluminium chelation
    Poster presented at the 136th BPS Conference, Cardiff, September 1999. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 51 (Suppl.), 293.
  • Schwalbe, C.H., Gallagher, C., Lowe, P.R., Billington, D.C., Rathbone, D.L. and Tims, K.J. (1999)
    Crystallographic and computational comparison of isomeric antimycobacterial amidrazones.
    Poster presented at the International Union of Crystallography meeting, Glasgow, June 1999, Acta Cryst., Sect. A (Suppl), A55, 152-153.
  • Billington, D.C., Coleman, M.D., Lambert, P.A., Lowe, P.R., Rathbone D.L., Schwalbe, C.H. and Tims, K.J. (1998)
    2-Heteroarylcarboxyamidrazones as potential therapeutic agents for multi-drug resistant TB
    Poster presented at the Royal Pharmaceutical Society Symposium on antimicrobial resistance, London, November 1998.
  • Rathbone, D.L., O'Carroll, B., Wallis, M.P., Farrow, K.C., Mahmood, N., Schwalbe, C.H. and Fraser, W. (1998)
    Isomorphous nucleosides with differing anti-HIV activity
    Poster presented at the 135th BPS Conference, Eastbourne, September 1998. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 50 (Suppl.), 130.
  • Schwalbe, C.H., Lowe, P.R., Billington, D.C., Gordon, B. and Rathbone, D.L. (1998)
    Relationship of structural and electronic properties to anti-mycobacterial activity in a series of 2-heteroaryl-carboxyamidrazones.
    Poster presented at the 135th BPS Conference, Eastbourne, September 1998. J.Pharm. Pharmacol. 50 (Suppl.), 245.
  • Schwalbe, C.H., Billington, D.C., Gordon, B., Rathbone, D. L. and Lowe, P.R. (1998)
    Crystal architecture of amidrazones.
    Poster presented at the American Crystallographic Association Annual Meeting, Washington, July 1998.
  • Sood, G., Schwalbe, C.H. and Fraser, W. (1997)
    Alkylation of purine bases: why, how and where?
    Poster presented at the American Crystallographic Association Annual Meeting, St. Louis, July 1997.
  • Schwalbe, C.H., Fraser, W. and Wallis, M. P. (1997)
    Stereoelectronic effect of pentafluorophenoxy and triazolyl-4-substitution in pyrimidine nucleosides.
    Poster presented at the American Crystallographic Association Annual Meeting, St. Louis, July 1997.
  • Schwalbe, C.H. and Spiers, I.D. (1996)
    Structural systematics of myo-inositol derivatives.
    Poster presented at the International Union of Crystallography meeting, Seattle, WA, August 1996, Acta Cryst., Sect. A (Suppl), A52, 152-153.
  • Schwalbe, C.H. (1996)
    From little acorns: drug design based on small-molecule crystal structures.
    Invited lecture presented at the British Crystallographic Association Annual Meeting, Cambridge, April 1996.

Professor Carl Schwalbe / Aston University / last updated February 2008

Employable Graduates; Exploitable Research