Professor B. Gilmartin PhD, BSc, FCOptom, FAAO

Professor of Optometry
School of Life and Health Sciences
Aston University
Birmingham B4 7ET

Email: b.gilmartin@aston.ac.uk
Telephone: +44 (0) 121 204 3881

Fax: +44 (0) 121 204 4048

Lecturer on the Undergraduate Optometry Programme

Research Group

Ophthalmic Research Group (ORG)

Image of Professor Bernard Gilmartin
  • 1968 Honours degree in Optometry (first) City University
  • 1969 Fellowship, College of Optometrists (CoO), elected Life Fellow Nov. 2000
  • 1969 General Optical Council (GOC) registration (retired April 2014)
  • 1971-72 City University: Lecturer 
  • 1974 PhD (City University)
  • 1974 Aston University: Lecturer
  • 1988 Aston University: Senior Lecturer
  • 1995 Aston University: Reader
  • 1998 Aston University: Personal Chair in Optometry
  • 2000 Life Fellow College of Optometrists
  • 2011 Retired from Aston University August 31st 
  • 2011  continued at Aston University on part-time basis (October 3rd 2011 -).

Second Year:

  • Primary Ophthalmic Examination Teaching Laboratory 

Final Year:

  • Ophthalmic Drugs OP3OD1 (Module Leader)
  • Elective Studies supervisor (five topics) 

Professional Doctorate:

  • Associate Module Leader for Module OP4MY1 ‘Myopia’ with Dr Nicola Logan

Publications and Grants

  • One hundred and forty research papers (see selection below), four book Chapters and two edited books principally in the areas of near vision function, myopia development, mechanisms of accommodation and ocular biometry. Over 120 Abstracts published at Conferences in Europe, The Far East, USA, Australasia and Canada.
  • Principal grant awarding bodies: College of Optometrists; Department of Transport; DERA; BAe; Wellcome Trust (Travel); Royal Society & Leverhulme Trust (Overseas Visiting Fellowships); West Midlands LORS; Hoya Corporation; Central LOC; Johnson & Johnson, BUPA.

International Standing

  • Editor of the academic journal of the College of Optometrists, Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics (OPO) 1986-2000. Associate Editor OPO (Feb 2010 - Feb 2013). Topical Editor (Myopia) Optometry and Vision Science (Feb 2011- Feb 2013). International Editorial Board Journal of Optometry (January 2008 -).
  • Reviewer for all the major vision research journals and assessor for projects submitted to Canadian (NSERC), Australian (ARC), New Zealand (AMRC) and Hong Kong funding bodies.
  • Research collaboration with laboratories in USA, Hong Kong, Japan, Australia, Germany and Russia.
  • Exchange Fellowships with Japan and Russia (Royal Society) and Australia (Queensland University).
  • Elected Fellow of the American Academy of Optometry in 1990.
  • Member of Optometric Advisory Boards: Sweden (The Karolinska Institute) and The Netherlands. International Editorial Board Member for Jounal of Optometry.
  • Keynote speaker on Myopia: European Academy of Optometry and Optics (EAOO), Copenhagen, May 2010

National Standing

  • Assessor for project grant proposals to UK funding bodies: Royal Society, London; MRC; EPSRC; BBSRC; Welsh Office; Wellcome Trust; Leverhulme Trust; Nuffield Foundation; Mencap; National Lottery. 
  • Special Invited Lectures: Marton lecture (1987); College Charter Lecture (1998); Gerald Dunn Memorial Lecture (2001); David Pickwell Memorial Lecture (2011). 
  • Research Committee, Institute of Optometry, London. Editorial Board member Optician 1999-. Co-opted member of the College of Optometrist’s Board of Trustees (May 2010-March 2011). Chair of College of Optometrist’s Research Committee (March 2010- March 2011), co-opted member March 2012 -.
  • External examiner (4 year appointments) for BSc Degree in Optometry at Universities of Manchester, Bradford, Glasgow, City and Plymouth (Oct 2011-July 2014).
  • Dedicated Festschrift issue (September 2011) of Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics in recognition of retirement in August 2011.
  • College of Optometrists Research Excellence Awards. A named Award was designated in August 2011: The Bernard Gilmartin OPO Award; an annual Award for the best research paper published in Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics during the previous 5 years. 
  • Association of Optometric Practitioners (AOP) ‘Lifetime Achievement Award’ in recognition of outstanding lifetime contribution to the world of optics - received November 7th 2013.

External Appointments

  • External examiner for 27 PhD theses awarded by Universities of Auckland, Cardiff, Birmingham, Bradford, City, Glasgow, Hong Kong, PolyU, Queensland, Sydney, UMIST.
  • Specialist assessor (teaching) for HEFC(W) '95; GOC Panel of Visitors (educationalist category and Chair) '97-to date; QAA Panel Member for Benchmarking Optometry, 2001; RAE Panel, Special Advisor (Optometry) 2001. Member of C12 RAE 2008 Sub-Panel Allied Health Professions and Studies.
  • Special advisor to School of Optometry, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (2009-12) and Member of validation Panel for MSc Optometry 2011.

Aston University Appointments

  • Awarded the Chancellor’s Medal for ‘outstanding and sustained contributions to Aston University’ in July 2009.
  • Research (internal) supervisor and examiner for 25 PhD degrees.
  • The Bernard Gilmartin Optometry Scholarship Award: established 2012. The award is to contribute to travel costs for research presentations at International Conferences by Aston University undergraduate, postgraduate and postdoctoral students.

  • School of Life and Health Sciences (LHS) appointments: Director of Research for School (2001-2005); Senate professorial representative; Chairman of Research Committee (2001-2005); member of School Management Committee and Board (2001-2005).

Refereed Journal Articles 2008 to present

  • Santodomingo-Rubido J, Wolffsohn JS & Gilmartin B. (2008) Conjunctival epithelial flaps with 18 months silicone hydrogel contact lens wear. Eye Contact Lens 34: 35-38.
  • Torri M, Okada Y, Ukai K, Wolffsohn JS, Gilmartin B (2008). Dynamic measurement of accommodation while viewing stereoscopic images. J Mod Optics 55: 557-567.
  •  Valsudevan B, Ciuffreda KJ, Gilmartin B. (2009) Sympathetic inhibition of accommodation following sustained nearwork in myopes and emmetropes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci  50: 114-120.
  • Davies LN, Wolffsohn JS, Gilmartin B. (2009) Autonomic correlates of ocular accommodation and cardiovascular function Ophthal. Physiol. Opt 29, 427-435.
  • Fukushima, T., Torii, M., Ukai, K., Wolffsohn, J. S., and Gilmartin, B. (2009). The relationship between CA/C ratio and individual differences in dynamic accommodative responses while viewing stereoscopic images. Journal of Vision9(13):21, 1-13.
  • Santodomingo-Rubido J,  César Villa-Collar, Gilmartin B, Gutiérrez-Ortega R. (2009). Myopia Control with Orthokeratology contact lenses in Spain (MCOS): study design and general baseline characteristics J Optometry  2:215-222.
  • O'Donoghue L, Saunders KJ,  McClelland JF,  Logan NS,  Rudnicka AR, Gilmartin  B, and Owen CG (2010). Sampling and measurement methods for a study of childhood refractive error in a United Kingdom population. Brit J Ophthalmol 94: 1150-1154.
  • Armstrong RA., Davies LN, Dunne MCM, Gilmartin B  (2011) Statistical guidelines for clinical studies in human vision  Ophthal Physiol Opt  31: 123-136.
  • Pointer  JS, Gilmartin  B. (2011) Patterns of refractive change in myopic subjects during the incipient phase of presbyopia: a preliminary study. Ophthal Physiol Opt   31: 550–558.
  • Patel H, Gilmartin B, Cubbidge R, LoganN.S. (2011)  In vivo measurement of regional variation in anterior scleral resistance to Schiotz indentationOphthal Physiol Opt  31: 437–443.
  • Logan NS, Shah P,  Rudnicka AR, Gilmartin B, Owen CG. (2011) Childhood ethnic differences in ametropia and ocular biometry: the Aston Eye Study. Ophthal Physiol Opt  31: 550–558.
  • Santodomingo-Rubido J, Villa-Collar C, Gilmartin B, Gutiérrez-Ortéga R. (2012) Myopia control with orthokeratology contact lenses in Spain (MCOS): refractive and biometric changes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53:5060-5065.
  • Santodomingo-Rubido J, Villa-Collar C, Gilmartin B, Gutiérrez-Ortéga R. (2012) Orthokeratology vs. Spectacles: Adverse Events and Discontinuations. Optom Vis Sci 89:1133-1139. 
  • Wolffsohn JS, Gilmartin B, Hunt OA, Edgar GK. (2012) Using photoretinoscopy to measure the binocular oculomotor response to monocular virtual image displays.pp 235-242  Vision in Vehicles - IX. North-Holland, Gale,AG (ed).
  • Santodomingo-Rubido J, Villa-Collar C, Gilmartin B, Gutiérrez-Ortéga R. (2013)  Myopia Control with Orthokeratology contact lenses in Spain (MCOS): a comparison of vision-related quality-of-life measures between contact lenses wear and single-vision spectacle lens wear. Eye Contact Lens Sci Clin Pract. 39: 153-157.
  • Buckhurst H, Gilmartin B, Cubbidge RP, Nagra M, Logan NS (2013). Ocular biometric correlates of ciliary muscle thickness in human myopia.  Ophthal Physiol Opt. 33: 294-304.
  • Lin Z, Valsudevan B, Liang JB, Zhang YC, Zhou SQ, Yang XD, Wang NL, Gilmartin B, Ciuffreda KJ (2013).  Near-work induced transient myopia (NITM) in anisometropia. Ophthal Physiol Opt. 33: 311-317.. 
  • Santodomingo-Rubido J, Villa-Collar C, Gilmartin B, Gutiérrez-Ortéga R. (2013) Factors preventing myopia progression with orthokeratology correction.Optom Vis Sci 90:1225-1236.
  • Gilmartin B, Nagra M, Logan NS. (2013). Shape of the posterior vitreous chamber in human emmetropia and myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 54:7240-7251.
  • Santodomingo-Rubido J, Villa-Collar C, Gilmartin B, Gutiérrez-Ortéga R.(2014) Short-term changes in ocular biometry and refraction following discontinuation of long-term orthokeratology. Eye Contact Lens  40: 84-90. 
  • Nagra M, Gilmartin B, Logan NS.(2014) Estimation of ocular volume from axial length. Brit J Ophthalmol. 98: 1697-1701.
  • Santodomingo-Rubido J, Villa-Collar C, Gilmartin B, Gutiérrez-Ortéga R. (2015) The effects of entrance pupil centration and coma aberrations on myopia progression following orthokeratology. Clin Exp Optom (In Press)


  • International Patent Application number PCT/GB2005/004577: Method and Apparatus for Imaging the Eye. Professor KD Singh, Professor B Gilmartin, Dr NS Logan.
  • UK patent application (August/January 2010; July 2011) GB1012040.0: Prof Stephen Anderson and Professor Bernard Gilmartin  Apparatus and method for affecting the progression of eye refractive error. 

Books and Book Chapters

  • Wolffsohn, JS Gilmartin, B Hunt,OA and Edgar,GK Using photoretinoscopy to measure the binocular oculomotor response to monocular virtual image displays. Vision in Vehicles - IX. 2002, North-Holland, Gale,AG (ed)
  • Harvey W and Gilmartin (Eds) (2004) Paediatric Optometry. Butterworth Heinemann Oxford
  • Logan, N.S. and Gilmartin, B. Contact lens correction and myopia progression. In: Contact Lenses  (Phillips AJ & Speedwell L, editors), Butterworth Heinemann: Oxford, 2006; pp. 591-600.
  • Gilmartin B. Ocular adverse reactions to systemic medication In: Optometry: Science, Techniques and Clinical Management (Rosenfield M, Logan NS, editors), 2nd Edition, Butterworth Heinemann: Oxford, 2009; pp. 111-126.



Gilmartin B, Logan NS and Singh KD In vivo Comparison of Anterior and Posterior Ocular Volume in Human Ametropia Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 49:3582


Nagra M, Gilmartin B,  Logan NS,  Furlong P, Wilkinson E and Singh K. Conformation of Sagittal and Axial Meridians in Human Myopia. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 50:3941

Gilmartin B, Nagra M, Logan NS and Patel HD. Regional Variation in Ocular Dimensions in Human Myopia. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 51: 6315 

Patel HD, Gilmartin B, Cubbidge RP and Logan NS. In vivo Ballastic Measurement of Anterior Scleral Resistance in Humans. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 51: 6312.


Logan NS, Shah P, Rudnicka AR, Gilmartin B and Owen CG. Uncorrected refractive error in school choldren in England, UK. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 52: 2311.


Nagra M, Gilmartin B,  and Logan NS. Concordance of retinal shape profiles derived using 3D MRI and peripheral refarction in adult human eyes  Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 52:4435.




Buckhurst H, Gilmartin B, Cubbidge RP, Nagra M and Logan NS. The relationship between anterior segment biometry and corneal biomechanics in myopia. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 53: 1639.


  • Eye growth in human myopia: structural (e.g. MRI) electrophysiological (e.g. mfERG) and psychophysical correlates. Collaboration: Professor Stephen Anderson (Aston), Dr Nicola Logan (Aston), Dr Manbir Nagra
  • Mapping of mid- and far-peripheral image optical shells to topography of ocular stretch in myopia. The role of sympathetic innervation of ciliary smooth muscle in myopia. Collaboration: Dr E Mallen, Bradford University. 
  • Epidemiology of myopia in the UK child population. Collaboration: Dr Nicola Logan (PI, Aston). See details of The Aston Eye Study at  http://www1.aston.ac.uk/lhs/staff/az-index/loganns--0/#P45_2590 ; Drs Alicia Rudnicka and Chris Owen, St George's, London University.  
  • The effect of ametropia on the relationship between IOP and sustained accommodation. Collaboration: Dr Gurjeet Rai. 
  • Nutrition and myopia. Collaboration: Dr Hannah Bartlett (PI, Aston)
  • Structural correlates of incipient myopia Collaboration: Dr Leon Davies (PI, Aston)
  • Pupil responses and visual processing. Collaboration: Dr S-I Tsujimura, Kagoshima University Japan.
  • Natural and artificial light and of the onset and development of myopia. Collaboration: Dr E Mallen, Bradford University. 
  • Adrenergic and cholinergic control systems in myopic growth. Collaboration: Dr E Mallen, Bradford University; Professor K Ciuffreda, SUNY USA; Dr Bala Valsudevan, University of Arizona, USA.
  • Corneal reshaping (OrthoK) and myopia progession in children: the Myopia Control with Orthokeratology contact lenses in Spain (MCOS) study. Collaboration: Dr J Santodomingo-Rubido, Menicon Madrid, Spain.  
  • Ocular volume in myopia.Collaboration: Dr S Benavente, SUNY USA  
  • Scleral biomechanics in myopia. Dr N Logan (Aston), Dr R Cubbidge (Aston); Dr Hetal Patel (University of Plymouth).

 Research publications

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