Dr Raj K. Singh Badhan

Lecturer in Pharmacokinetics

Admission Tutor (Pharmacy)


School of Life & Health Sciences
Aston University, Aston Triangle
Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK

Research Theme

Chronic and Communicable Conditions

Research Centre

Aston Research Centre for Healthy Ageing (ARCHA) 

Dr Raj K. Singh Badhan

Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling projects (CNS).

PhD positions available for non-EU students (partly funded). 

Please see link below

  • Neuropharmacokinetics
    • Blood-brain barrier
    • Blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier
  • Pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation
  • Physiologically-based pharmacokinetics
  • Population pharmacokinetics
  • Nasal drug delivery (olfactory transport to brain)
    • Direct nose-to-brain drug delivery
PH1403: Mathematics.
PH2503: Stability kinetics.
PH3603 (module coordinator): Pharmacokinetics, biopharmaceutics.

I joined Aston University in June 2010 as Lecturer in Pharmacokinetics following over 3 years of extensive pharmacokinetics training with the world-renowned Centre for Applied Pharmacokinetics Research as a post-doctorate research associate, within the School of Pharmacy at the University of Manchester.

I have a broad background and interest in identifying and modulating cellular mechanisms impacting upon drug/chemical biodistribution and pharmacokinetics.  Key to this approach has been the merging of bioinformatics and pharmacokinetics in-silico approaches to provide mechanisms that may yielding predictions of human drug biodistribution during early preclinical development phases. 

As a pharmacokineticist and practicing pharmacist, I have a singular vision of developing tools and approaches which provide clear end-user/clinical benefits.  This approach has driven successes in developing preclinical research tools to predict oral drug absorption and central nervous system drug biodistribution.  

The research carried out within our group is highly diverse and we actively encourage the amalgamation of cellular and molecular biology techniques with in silico mathematical approaches to drive the mechanistic prediction and optimisation of in-vivo pharmacokinetics for drugs and novel dosage forms targetting the central nervous system

Research themes currently investigated with our laboratories include: 

  • Development in silico predictive physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models to assess temporal tissue/organ drug/chemical biodistribution (e.g. physiological and compartmental modeling approaches).

  • Identification and incorporation of relevant proteomic/transcriptomicdata into in-silico pharmacokinetics models and the development of hybrid physiological systems-based pharmacokinetic (hpSBPK) models (e.g. molecular and cell biology approaches including DNA/RNA characterisation, pcr and Western blotting).

  • Application of novel in-vitro and in-vivo applications of microdialysis techniques to assess temporal in-vivo tissue/organ drug disposition (e.g. quantitative microdialysis).

  • Development of microscale human 'body-on-chip' to devices to provide a high-throughput pharmaco/toxico-kinetic screening tools for various tissues/organs (e.g. MEMS/bioMEMS approaches)

  • Functional characterisation of pharmacokinetically relevant Centraldrug-efflux and drug-uptake transporters using cellular expression and in-vivo model systems (e.g. in-vitro cell culture model systems and drug transporter characterisation assays)

  • Bioinformatics and and systems-biology assessment of drug-transporter structure, function and regulation (e.g. molecular modeling, homology modeling, ligand-docking and molecular dynamics simulation approaches)

  • MPharm (Masters in Pharmacy) 2(i), School of Pharmacy, University of Manchester, 2001
  • PhD (Pharmacology, Molecular Biology and Pharmacokinetics), School of Pharmacy, University of Manchester, 2005  

American Pharmacists Association (APhA) -  Ebert Prize 2010 (Washington DC, USA)

Established in 1873, the Ebert Prize is the oldest pharmacy award in the United States. The award, administered by the APhA Academy of Pharmaceutical Research and Science, consists of a silver medallion bearing the likeness of Albert Ethelbert Ebert, former APhA president.  I received the award at the APhA Annual Meeting and Exposition in Washington, DC, for the paper entitled “Methodology for Development of a Physiological Model Incorporating CYP3A and P-Glycoprotein for the Prediction of Intestinal Drug Absorption,” published in the June 2009 issue of the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.   

  • 2010-date:  Lecturer in Pharmacokinetics, School of Pharmacy, Aston University
  • 2005-2009: Post-Doctorate Research Associate (Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacometrics), Centre for Applied Pharmacokinetics Research (CAPKR), School of Pharmacy, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
  • 2002-date: Locum pharmacist for national pharmacy chains 
  • 2001-2002: Pre-registration pharmacist, Superdrug Pharmacy, Wolverhampton, United Kingdom   

I am the module coordinator and teach  3rd year MPharm Pharmaceutics module PH3CT1 (Pharmacokinetics, Biopharmaceutics) and MSc. Drug Delivery/Pharmaceutical Sciences module BI4010.  I also teach Stability Kinetics (PH2CT2) and mathematics (PH1CT1) throughout the MPharm course.

Pharmacokinetics plays a vital component in the drug discovery and development process, and provides critical and quantitative knowledge on how a drug enters and is processed by the body. Pharmacokinetics aims to quantify and improve prediction at all steps between drug discovery and use with mechanism-based modelling methodologies.

Our goal is to provide guidance in the development, evaluation and implementation of in vitro and in silico approaches for predicting and improving human clinical pharmacokinetics to optimise dosing and pharmacodynamic response.
Research strands actively pursued include:

CNS targetting and drug delivery

We are developing, assessing and evaluating the use of in-vitro organtypic cell culture models to assess both blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-CSF-barrier (BCSFB) drug targetting and delivery to the brain.  We are actively working with immortalised and primary cell culture systems to charaterise the disposition of drugs across the brain and CSF and the factors that influence this.

Whole Body Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modelling

We are developing, assessing and evaluating the use of whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to the prediction of drug pharmacokinetic behavior, utilising drug specific physicochemical, in vitro and nonclinical data along with extensive physiological data.   Key to this approach is the development of modular organ/tissue specific models.

Key successes have developed human predictive pharmacokinetics models to assess the extent of oral drug absorption and central nervous systems drug disposition (brain parenchyma cells and cerebrospinal fluid) using a limited set of pre-clinical drug specific parameters.  These approaches are currently being applied to the development of predictive pharmacokinetics models of other human tissues/organs including the placenta, breast tissue, nasal cavity, bone and eye.

In-vitro and in-vivo microdialysis

We are developing novel in-vitro and in-vivo microdialysis probes and methodologies for quantifying temporal drug concentrations in peripheral tissues and organs for use in conjunction with in-silico pharmacokinetic modeling approaches.   The usefulness of microdialysis as a method to identify and assess pharmacodynamic (biomarker) responses is also underway within our laboratory and will be used to further enhance existing pharmacokinetic modeling approaches. 

Systems biology and bioinformatics:  Drug transporter modelling

To ensure successful drug-based treatment strategies, favorable pharmacokinetic characteristics of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion are essential. By modulating these processes we are able to influence the efficacy of disease treatments.
Drug-efflux transporters located within the plasma membrane, which actively extrude agents out of cells, have recently been identified as key mechanisms which have the potential to alter pharmacokinetic properties and are involved in the phenomenon of cancer multidrug resistance.

Research within the group aims to apply bioinformatics approaches to predicting the structure (homology modelling) of pharmacokinetically relevant drug transporter proteins such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) and Multidrug Resistance Protein-1 (MRP-1),  and suitable candidate modulators (ligand-docking) of drug-transporters proteins. 

Opportunities are available for prospective self-funded MPhil and PhD level research students to conduct research in the area of Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacometrics within the School of Pharmacy. Please contact me for more details.

Collaborative research is welcome and encouraged, please contact me for more details.

Self-funded and part-funded PhD projects in Pharmacokinetics and PBPK-modelling are available for prospective students.  It is envisaged that fully funded studentships will also become available.


Optimising CNS Drug Delivery: Development of a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic & Systems-Biology Based Model of the Human Blood-Brain Barrier

  • Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain
  • International Society for the Study of Xenobiotics
  • Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences Great Britain (APSGB)
  • United Kindgom and Ireland Controlled Release Society (UKICRS) 
  • Badhan, R.K.S.; Kaur, M.; Lungare, S.; Obuobi, S.Improving brain drug targeting through exploitation of the nose-to-brain route: a physiological and pharmacokinetic perspective. Current Drug Delivery 2014, 11, 1-14.
  • Badhan, R.K.S.; Chenel, M.; Penny, J.I. Development of a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model of the Rat Central Nervous System. Pharmaceutics 20146, 97-136.
  • R.K. Badhan, J.Penny, A. Galetin and J. Brian Houston. Methodology for development of a physiological model incorporating CYP3A and P-glycoprotein for the prediction of intestinal drug absorption. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences 2009, 98, 2180-97
  • S. Mares-Samano, R.K. Badhan and J. Penny. Identification of putative steroid-binding sites in human ABCB1 and ABCG2. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2009, 44, 3601-11
  • R.K. Badhan and J.Penny. In silico modelling of the interaction of flavonoids with human P-glycoprotein nucleotide-binding domain. European journal of medicinal chemistry (2006) vol. 41 (3) pp. 285-95 
  • R.K.S.Badhan. Impact of drug permeability, active transport and protein binding on central nervous system drug disposition: A systems-based pharmacokinetic approach. Submitted for UKPharmSci 2011 (Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences), May 2011.
  • R.K.S.Badhan. Impact of ageing on oral drug absorption and bioavailability: A systems-based pharmacokinetic approach. Presented at United Kingdom and Ireland Controlled Release Society symposia (Belfast, April 2011)
  • R.K. Badhan, J.Penny, M. Chenel and J. Brian Houston. The impact of drug permeation, unbound fraction and efflux on central nervous system drug disposition. Abstract 206. Drug metabolism reviews (2008) vol. 40 (S1) pp 173-182
  • R.K.Badhan, G. Corkill and J.Penny. Molecular modelling of nucleotide-binding domains of multi-drug efflux transporters. Abstract 616. Anticancer Research (2004) vol. 24 pp. 4269

Employable Graduates; Exploitable Research