.

Dr Richard Armstrong

Lecturer

School of Life & Health Sciences
Aston University
Birmingham B4 7ET
UK

email: r.a.armstrong@aston.ac.uk 
telephone: +44 (0) 121 204 4102
fax: +44 (0) 121 333 4220

Lecturer on the Undergraduate Optometry Programme

Research Theme

Clinical and Systems Neuroscience

Research Centre

Centre for Research in Vision and Hearing(CRVH)

Aston Brain Centre

Richard Armstrong
  • 1968 - 71 King's College, London ; July 1971 First Class Honours (Botany)
  • 1971 - 74 Botany School and St. Catherine's College, Oxford; July 1974 D.Phil in Plant Ecology (NERC funded); Supervisors: Prof. F R Whatley, FRS; Sir D C Smith, FRS.
  • 1974 - 76 Botany School and St. Catherine's College, Oxford; NERC Research Fellow in Plant Ecology.
  • 1976 - 87 Biological Sciences, Aston University; Lecturer in plant ecology.
  • 1987 - 88 Institute of Psychiatry, University of London; Retraining in Neurosciences.
  • 1988 Neuropathology, University of Washington, Seattle, USA ; research sabbatical.
  • 1989 – to date Vision Sciences, Aston University; Lecturer in Neurosciences.
1st Year:  Biomedical Sciences (module leader)

                Human Biology

2nd Year: Visual Biology

Neuropathology of Alzheimer's Disease; Lichen Biology and Ecology.
  1. Armstrong RA (1973) Seasonal growth and growth rate colony size relationships in six species of saxicolous lichens. New Phytol 72:1023-1030.
  2. Armstrong RA (1974a) The descriptive ecology of saxicolous lichens in an area of South Merionethshire, Wales. J Ecol 62:33-45.
  3. Armstrong RA (1974b) Growth phases in the life of a lichen thallus. New Phytol 73:913-918.
  4. Armstrong RA (1974c) The Structure and Dynamics of Saxicolous Lichen Communities. D.Phil. Thesis, University of Oxford.
  5. Armstrong RA (1975) The influence of aspect on the pattern of seasonal growth in the lichen Parmelia glabratula ssp. fuliginosa (Fr. ex Duby)Laund. New Phytol 75:245-251.
  6. Armstrong RA (1976a) Studies on the growth rates of lichens. In: Lichenology: Progress and Problems. (Ed by D.H. Brown, R.H. Bailey and D.L. Hawksworth), Academic Press, London.
  7. Armstrong RA (1976b) The influence of the frequency of wetting and drying on the radial growth of three saxicolous lichens in the field. New Phytol 77:719-724.
  8. Armstrong RA (1977a) The response of lichen growth to transplantation to rock surfaces of different aspect. New Phytol 78:473-478.
  9. Armstrong RA (1977b) The response of lichen growth to additions of distilled water, rainwater, and water from a rock surface. New Phytol 79:373-376.
  10. Armstrong RA (1978) The colonization of a slate rock surface by a lichen. New Phytol 81: 85-88.
  11. Armstrong RA (1979) Growth and regeneration of lichen thalli with the central portions artificially removed. Env Exp Bot 19:175-178.
  12. Armstrong RA (1981a) Field experiments on the dispersal, establishment and colonization of lichens on a slate rock surface. Env Exp Bot 21:116-120.
  13. Wade KM, Armstrong RA, Woodell SRJ (1981b) Experimental studies on the distribution of the sexes of Mercurialis perennis L. 1. Field observations and canopy removal experiments. New Phytol 86:431-438.
  14. Anderson JP, Armstrong RA, Smith SN (1981c) Methods to evaluate pesticide damage to mass of the soil microflora. Soil Biol Biochem 13:149-153.
  15. Armstrong RA (1982) Competition between three foliose species of Parmelia (Lichens). New Phytol 90:67-72.
  16. Armstrong RA (1983) Growth curve of the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. New Phytol 94:619-622.
  17. Armstrong RA (1984a) The influence of bird droppings and uric acid on the growth of five species of saxicolous lichens. Env Exp Bot 24:95-99.
  18. Armstrong RA (1984b) Growth of experimentally reconstructed thalli of the lichen Parmelia conspersa. New Phytol 98:497-502.
  19. Smith SN, Armstrong RA, Rimmer JJ (1984c) The influence of environmental factors on the zoospores of Saprolegnia diclina. Trans Br mycol Soc 82:413-421.
  20. Armstrong RA (1985a) Field experiments on competition between three foliose lichens using the De Wit experimental design. Env Exp. Bot 25:369-374.
  21. Smith SN, Armstrong RA, Fowler MW (1985b) Breakdown of plant cell biomass by filamentous fungi. Enzyme Microb Technol 7:61-65.
  22. Smith SN, Armstrong RA, Springate J. Barker G (1985c) Infection and colonization of trout eggs by Saprolegniaceae. Trans Br Mycol Soc 85:719-723.
  23. Armstrong RA (1986a) Competition between three lichen species using a factorial experimental design. New Phytol 104:637-641.
  24. Sahota A, Leeming RJ, Blair JA, Armstrong RA, Green A, Cohen BE (1986b) Partial dihydropteridine reductase deficiency and mental retardation. J Inher Metab Dis 9:247-249.
  25. Armstrong RA, Sahota A, Blair JA, Cohen BE (1986c) Genetic analysis of partial dihydropteridine reductase deficiency in families with mental retardation. J Inher Metab Dis 9:400-401.
  26. Anderson JM, Hamon CGB, Armstrong RA, Blair JA (1986d) Tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism in normal brain, senile dementia of the Alzheimer type and Down's syndrome. In: Chemistry and Biology of Pteridines, B.A. Cooper and V.M. Whitehead Eds. Walter de Gruyter and Co., Berlin, New York.
  27. Armstrong RA (1987a) Dispersal in a population of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes. Env Exp Bot 27:357-363.
  28. Anderson J, Blair JA, Armstrong RA (1987b) The effect of age on tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism in the human brain. J Neurol Neurosurg and Psych 50: 231.
  29. Armstrong RA, Smith SN (1987c) Development and growth of the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. Symbiosis 3:287-300.
  30. Armstrong RA (1988a) Substrate colonization, Growth and Competition. In: Handbook of Lichenology, (Ed. M.Galun), CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio.
  31. Myers D, Armstrong RA, Smith CUM, Carter RA (1988b) The spatial arrangement patterns of senile plaques in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT). Neurosci Res Comm 2:99-106.
  32. Armstrong RA, Myers D, Smith CUM (1989a) Further studies on the patterns of senile plaques in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) with a hypothesis on the colonization of the cortex. Neurosci Res Comm 4:17-24.
  33. Coppen A, Swade C, Jones SA, Armstrong RA, Blair JA Leeming RJ (1989b) Depression and tetrahydrobiopterin: the folate connection. J Affec Dis 16:103-107.
  34. Armstrong RA, Janday BS (1989c) A brief review of magnetic fields from the visual system. Ophthalmol Physiol Optics 9:229-231.
  35. Armstrong RA, Myers D, Smith CUM (1989d) Further studies on the patterns of senile plaques in senile dementia of the Alzheimer Type (SDAT) with a hypothesis on the colonization of the cortex. Parkinson/Alzheimer Digest, 7:19-20.
  36. Armstrong RA (1990a) Dispersal, establishment and survival of soredia and fragments of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) New Phytol 114:239-245.
  37. Armstrong RA (1990b) The influence of calcium and magnesium on the growth of the lichens Xanthoria parietina and Parmelia saxatilis. Env Exp Bot 30:51-57.
  38. Smith SN, Ince E, Armstrong RA (1990c) Effect of osmotic and matrix potential on Saprolegnia declina and S.ferax. Mycol Res 94:71-77.
  39. Armstrong RA, Nochlin D, Sumi SM, Alvord EC (1990d) Neuropathological changes in the visual cortex in Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Res. Comm 6:163-171.
  40. Armstrong RA, Janday BS, Slaven A, Harding GFA (1990e) The use of flash and pattern evoked fields in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. In: Advances in Biomagnetism, pp 315-318, Plenum Press.
  41. Armstrong RA, Myers D, Smith CUM (1990f) The relationship between the spatial patterns of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Res Comm 7:105-111.
  42. Armstrong RA, Slaven A, Harding GFA (1991a) The influence of age on the pattern and flash visual evoked magnetic response (VEMR). Ophthalmol Physiol Opt 11:71-75.
  43. Armstrong RA (1991b) Competitive interactions between four foliose lichens on north and south facing rock surfaces. Env Exp Bot 31:51-58.
  44. Armstrong RA, Myers D, Smith CUM, Cairns N, Luthert PJ (1991c) Alzheimer's disease: the relationship between the density of senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and A4 deposits in human patients. Neurosci Lett 123:141-143.
  45. Armstrong RA (1991d) The influence of climate on the dispersal of lichen soredia. Env Exp Bot 31:239-245.
  46. Armstrong RA, Myers D, Smith CUM (1991e) Alzheimer's disease: size class frequency distribution of senile plaques: do they indicate when a brain tissue was affected? Neurosci Lett 127:223-226.
  47. Armstrong RA, Slaven A, Harding GFA (1991f) Visual evoked magnetic fields to flash and pattern in 100 normal subjects. Vis Res 31:1859-1864.
  48. Armstrong RA (1991g) The relationship between senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid (A4) deposits in Alzheimer's Disease: A Principal Components Analysis. Neurosci Res Comm 9:91-97.
  49. Armstrong RA (1991h) Experimental studies of lobe growth in the lichen Parmelia conspersa (Ehrh. ex Ach.)Ach. New Phytol 119:315-319.
  50. Harding GFA, Janday B, Armstrong RA (1991i) Topographic mapping and source localisation of the pattern reversal visual evoked magnetic response. Brain Topography 4:47-55.
  51. Armstrong RA (1992a) Soredial dispersal from individual soralia in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.)Nyl. Exp Env Bot 32:55-63.
  52. Armstrong RA, Myers D, Smith CUM, Cairns N, Luthert PJ (1992b) The spatial pattern of senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and A4 deposits in Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Res Comms 10:27-33.
  53. Armstrong RA, Myers D (1992c) β/A4 deposits and their relationship to senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease. NeuroReport, 3:262-264.
  54. Armstrong RA, Smith SN (1992d) Lobe growth variation and the maintenance of symmetry in foliose lichen thalli. Symbiosis 12:145-158.
  55. Armstrong RA, Myers D, Smith CUM (1992e) The distribution of senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and β/A4 protein in the hippocampus in Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Res Comms 10:87-94.
  56. Harding GFA, Armstrong RA, Janday B (1992f) Visual evoked electrical and magnetic response to half-field stimulation using pattern reversal stimulation. Ophthalmol Physiol Opt 12:171-174.
  57. Armstrong RA, Myers D, Smith CUM (1992g) Alzheimer's disease: Size class frequency distributions of senile plaques: Do they indicate when a brain tissue was affected? Alzheimer/Parkinson's Digest, June 24-25.
  58. Harding GFA, Janday B, Armstrong RA (1992h) The topographic distribution of the magnetic P100m to full and half-field stimulation. Doc Ophthalmol 80:63-73.
  59. Armstrong RA, Myers D (1992i) Principal components analysis of Alzheimer's disease based on neuropathological data: A study of 79 patients. Neurosci Res Comms 11:1-9.
  60. Armstrong RA (1992j) A comparison of the growth curves of the foliose lichen Parmelia conspersa determined by a cross-sectional study and by direct measurement. Env Exp.Bot 32:221-227.
  61. Degg C, Slaven A, Armstrong RA (1992k) Topographic mapping and source localisation of the pattern onset visual evoked magnetic response. Brain Topography 5:11-16.
  62. Cox J, Armstrong RA, Blair J (1992l) The influence of 2,4-Diamino-6-Hydroxypyrimidine and food restriction on tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism, neurotransmitters and behaviour in the rat. Pteridines 3:185-189.
  63. Armstrong RA, Anderson J, Cowburn JD, Cox J, Blair JA (1992m) Aluminium administered in drinking water but not in the diet influences biopterin metabolism in the rodent. Biol Chem 373:1075-1078.
  64. Armstrong RA (1992n) Alzheimer's disease: Are cellular neurofibrillary tangles linked to β/A4 formation at the projection sites? Neurosci Res Commun 11:171-178.
  65. Armstrong RA, Myers D, Smith CUM (1993a) The spatial patterns of plaques and tangles in Alzheimer's disease do not support the 'Cascade Hypothesis'. Dementia 4:16-20.
  66. Armstrong RA (1993b) Seasonal growth of foliose lichens in successive years in South Gwynedd, Wales. Env Exp Bot 33:225-232.
  67. Armstrong RA (1993c) The spatial patterns of β/A4 deposit subtypes and blood vessels in Alzheimer's disease cases with pronounced congophilic angiopathy. Neurosci Res Commun 12:183-191.
  68. Armstrong RA, Smith SN (1993d) Radial growth and carbohydrate levels in the lichen Parmelia conspersa on north and south facing rock surfaces. Symbiosis 15:27-49.
  69. Armstrong RA, Myers D, Smith CUM (1993e) The spatial patterns of β/A4 deposit subtypes in Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropathol 86:36-41.
  70. Armstrong RA, Myers D, Smith CUM (1993f) The size frequency distributions of β/A4 deposit subtypes in Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Res Commun 13:9-17.
  71. Armstrong RA (1993g) The usefulness of spatial pattern analysis in understanding the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, with particular reference to plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease. Neurodegen 2:73-80.
  72. Armstrong RA (1993h) Factors determining lobe growth in foliose lichen thalli. New Phytol 124:675-679.
  73. Armstrong RA (1993i) Is the clustering of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's patients related to the cells of origin of specific cortico-cortical projections? Neurosci Lett 160:57-60.
  74. Degg C, Slaven A, Armstrong RA (1993j) Chronotopographical analysis of the pattern onset visual evoked magnetic response (VEMR): implications for waveform peak identification. Vis Res 33:2443-2446.
  75. Armstrong RA, Myers D, Smith CUM (1993k) The ratio of diffuse to mature Beta/A4 deposits in Alzheimer's disease varies in cases with and without pronounced congophilic angiopathy. Dementia 4:251-255.
  76. Hodgkins PS, Prasher V, Farrar G, Armstrong RA, Sturman S, Corbett J, Blair JA (1993l) Reduced transferrin binding in Down's syndrome: a route to senile plaque formation and dementia. NeuroReport 5:21-24.
  77. Armstrong RA, Myers D, Smith CUM (1993m) The spatial patterns of plaques and tangles in Alzheimer's disease do not support the "Cascade Hypothesis". Parkinson/Alzheimer Digest, 6:23-24.
  78. Armstrong RA (1993n) The growth of six saxicolous lichens transplanted to lime-rich and lime-poor substrates in South Gwynedd, Wales. Symbiosis 15:257-267.
  79. Armstrong RA (1994a) Relationships between morphological types of plaque in Alzheimer's disease as revealed in silver and immunostained preparations. Neurodegen 2:259-266.
  80. Armstrong RA (1994b) Spatial patterns of plaques and tangles in Alzheimer's disease. Dementia 5:54.
  81. Armstrong RA.(1994c) Dispersal of soredia from individual soralia of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.)Nyl. in a simple wind tunnel. Env Exp Bot 34:39-45.
  82. Armstrong RA (1994d) Quantitative differences in β/A4 protein subtypes in the parahippocampal gyrus and frontal cortex in Alzheimer's disease. Dementia 5:1-5.
  83. Armstrong RA, Cattell RJ, Jones SA, Winsper S, Blair JA (1994e) Elevated urinary neopterin suggests immune activation in Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome. Neurosci Res Commun 14:63-69.
  84. Smith SN, Chohan R, Howitt SG, Armstrong RA (1994f) Proteolytic activity amongst selected Saprolegnia species. Mycol Res 98:389-395.
  85. Armstrong RA (1994g) Differences in β-amyloid (β/A4) deposition in human patients with Down's syndrome and sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Lett 169:133-136.
  86. Armstrong RA, Wood L (1994h) The identification of pathological subtypes of Alzheimer's disease using cluster analysis. Acta Neuropathol 88:60-66.
  87. Armstrong RA (1994i) Neuropathological differences between areas B17 and B18: Implications for visual evoked responses in Alzheimer's disease. Dementia 5:247-251.
  88. Armstrong RA, Slaven A (1994j) Does the neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease spread between visual cortical regions B17 and B18 via the feedforward or feedback short cortico-cortical projections? Neurodegen 3:191-196.
  89. Armstrong RA (1994k) The spatial patterns of β/A4 deposit subtypes in Down's syndrome. Acta Neuropathol 88:353-358.
  90. Armstrong RA (1994l) β-amyloid deposition in elderly non-demented patients and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Lett 178:59-62.
  91. Winsper SJ, Armstrong RA, Pall H, Fuchs D, Wachter H, Williams A, Blair JA (1994m) Serum neopterin levels and metal binding to transferrin in Parkinson's disease patients. Pteridines,5:114-116.
  92. Armstrong RA (1994n) The influence of bird droppings on the growth of lichen fragments transplanted to slate and cement substrates. Symbiosis 17:75-86.
  93. Armstrong RA, Smith SN (1994o) The levels of ribitol, arabitol and mannitol in individual lobes of the lichen Parmelia conspersa (Ehrh. ex Ach.)Ach. Env Exp Bot 34:253-260.
  94. Armstrong RA, Smith CUM (1995a) β-amyloid (β/A4) deposition in the medial temporal lobe in Down's syndrome: effects of brain region and patient age. Neurobiol Dis 1:139-144.
  95. Armstrong RA, Myers D, Smith CUM (1995b) What determines the size frequency distribution of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in Alzheimer's disease patients? Neurosci Lett 187:13-16.
  96. Armstrong RA (1995c) Beta-amyloid deposition in the medial temporal lobe in elderly non-demented brains and in Alzheimer's disease. Dementia 6:121-125.
  97. Armstrong RA, Winsper SJ, Blair JA (1995d) Hypothesis: is Alzheimer's disease a metal-induced immune disorder? Neurodegen., 4:107-111.
  98. Armstrong RA (1995e) The spatial patterns of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in elderly non-demented patients and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Res Commun 16:137-144.
  99. Armstrong RA (1995f) Lobe interactions within the thallus margin and the maintenance of symmetry in the lichen Parmelia conspersa (Ehrh. ex Ach.)Ach. Symbiosis 18:129-142.
  100. Armstrong RA (1995g) A comparison of β-amyloid (β/A4) deposition in the medial temporal lobe in late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease, and Down's syndrome. Amyloid: Int J Exp. Clin Invest. 2:107-113.
  101. Armstrong RA (1995h) Factors determining the morphology of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in Down's syndrome. Neurodegen 4:179-186.
  102. Armstrong RA (1995i) Is the clustering of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in the frontal cortex of Alzheimer patients determined by blood vessels? Neurosci Lett 195:121-124.
  103. Armstrong RA (1995j) Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the eye. Clinical Optometry Update 15 (2):S42-S48.
  104. Armstrong RA, Cattell RJ, Winsper SJ, Blair JA (1995k) The levels of neopterin, biopterin and the neopterin/biopterin ratio in urine from control subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome. Pteridines 6:185-189.
  105. Armstrong RA, Winsper SJ, Blair JA (1996a) Aluminium and Alzheimer's disease: Review of possible pathogenic mechanisms. Dementia 7:1-9.
  106. Armstrong RA (1996b) β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits and blood vessels: laminar distribution in the frontal cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Res Comms 18:19-28.
  107. Armstrong RA, Smith SN (1996c) Experimental studies of hypothallus growth in the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. New Phytol 132: 123-126.
  108. Armstrong RA (1996d) The spatial pattern of discrete β-amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease reflects synaptic disconnection. Dementia 7: 86-90.
  109. Armstrong RA, Syed AB (1996e) Alzheimer's disease and the eye. Opthal Physiol Opt (suppl 1) 16:S2-S8.
  110. Armstrong RA, Wood L (1996f) Spatial pattern analysis of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in Alzheimer disease by linear regression. Alz Dis Assoc Dis 10:40-45.
  111. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Patel R, Lantos PL, Rossor MN (1996g) Relationships between β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits and blood vessels in patients with sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Lett 207:171-174.
  112. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Myers D, Smith CUM, Lantos PL, Rossor MN (1996h) A comparison of β-amyloid deposition in the medial temporal lobe in sporadic Alzheimer's disease, Down's syndrome and normal elderly brains. Neurodegen 5:35-41.
  113. Armstrong RA, Wood L, Myers D, Smith CUM (1996i) The use of multivariate methods in the identification of subtypes of Alzheimer's disease: A comparison of principal components and cluster analysis. Dementia 7:215-220.
  114. Armstrong RA, Smith SN (1996j) Do the lichens Xanthoparmelia conspersa (Ach.) Hale and Rhizocarpon Ram. em Th. Fr. subgenus Rhizocarpon utilise exogenous carbohydrates for radial growth? Env Exp Bot 36:13-20.
  115. Armstrong RA (1996k) Is β-amyloid (Aβ deposition in the frontal cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease related to blood vessels? Alz Res 2:47-50.
  116. Armstrong RA, Wood L (1996l) Spatial pattern analysis of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in Alzheimer's disease by linear regression. Parkinson/Alzheimer Digest 1996 (5):24-25.
  117. Armstrong RA (1996m) The spatial pattern of discrete β-amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease reflects synaptic disconnection. Parkinson/Alzheimer Digest 1995 (5):31-32.
  118. Armstrong RA, Smith SN (1996o) Factors determining the growth curve of the foliose lichen Parmelia conspersa. New Phytol 134:517-522.
  119. Armstrong RA (1996p) Are neuritic plaques in Alzheimer's disease related to cellular neurofibrillary tangles? Alz Res 2:69-71.
  120. Armstrong RA (1996q) Visual field defects in Alzheimer's disease patients may reflect differential pathology in primary visual cortex. Opt Vis Sci 73:677-682.
  121. Armstrong RA (1996r) Correlations between the morphology of diffuse and primitive β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits and the frequency of associated cells in Down's syndrome. Neuropath Appl Neurobiol 22: 527-530.
  122. Livesley MA, Smith SN, Armstrong RA, Barker GA (1997a) Analysis of plasmid profiles of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. FEMS Microbiol Lett 146:297-301.
  123. Winsper SJ, Armstrong RA, Hodgkins PS, Blair JA (1997b) Gallium-transferrin binding in treated and untreated Parkinson's disease. NeuroReport 8:709-711.
  124. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (1997c) Dementia with Lewy bodies: Clustering of Lewy bodies in human patients. Neurosci. Lett., 224: 41-44.
  125. Armstrong RA (1997d) Analysis of spatial patterns in histological sections of brain tissue. J. Neuro. Sci. Meth.73: 141-147.
  126. Armstrong RA & Smith SN (1997e) Factors associated with degeneration of the thallus centre in foliose lichens. Symbiosis 22: 293-302.
  127. Armstrong RA, Myers D, Smith CUM (1997f) Factors determining the size frequency distribution of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in Alzheimer's disease. Exp. Neurol. 145: 574-579.
  128. Armstrong RA (1997g) Size distribution curves of senile plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease: do plaques grow according to the log-normal model? Alz. Res. 3: 63-67.
  129. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (1997h) β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the medial temporal lobe of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies. Neurosci. Lett. 227: 193-196.
  130. Armstrong RA (1997i) Parkinson's disease and the eye. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 17: S9-S16 (suppl.).
  131. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (1997j) Laminar distribution of cortical Lewy bodies and neurofibrillary tangles in Dementia with Lewy bodies. Neurosci. Res. Communs. 21:145-152.
  132. Armstrong RA (1997k) Are metal ions accumulated by saxicolous lichens growing in a rural environment? Env. Exp. Bot. 38: 73-79.
  133. Smith SN, Chohan R, Armstrong RA, Whipps JM (1998a) Hydrophobicity and surface electrostatic charge of conidia of the mycoparasite Coniothyrium minitans. Mycol. Res. 102: 243-249.
  134. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (1998b) The spatial patterns of Lewy bodies, senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in Dementia with Lewy bodies. Exp. Neurol. 150: 122-127.
  135. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (1998c) Clustering of Pick bodies in patients with Pick's disease. Neurosci. Lett 242: 81-84.
  136. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (1998d) The spatial patterns of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease. Alz. Res. 4: 5-9.
  137. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (1998e) The spatial pattern of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in Alzheimer's disease patients is related to apolipoprotein genotype. Neurosci. Res. Communs . 22: 99-106.
  138. Armstrong RA (1998f) β-amyloid plaques: stages in life history or independent origin? Dement. Geriatr. Cogn. Disord. 9: 227-238.
  139. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (1998g) Lewy body and Alzheimer pathology in temporal lobe in dementia with Lewy bodies. Alz. Rep. 1: 159-163.
  140. Armstrong RA, Smith SN (1998h) Does radial growth of the lichen Parmelia conspersa depend exclusively on growth processes at the lobe tip? Env. Exp. Bot. 39: 263-269.
  141. Armstrong RA, Wade KM, Nochlin D, Bird TD (1998i) Is neuropathological heterogeneity in Alzheimer's disease related to apolipoprotein genotype? Alz. Rep. 1: 217-221.
  142. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (1998j) A comparison of histological and immunohistochemical methods for quantifying the pathological lesions of Pick's disease. Neuropathol. 18: 295-300.
  143. Armstrong RA (1998k) The immune system and the eye. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 18, Suppl. 2: S40-S48.
  144. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (1998l) Spatial distribution of diffuse, primitive and classic amyloid-β deposits and blood vessels in the upper laminae of the frontal cortex in Alzheimer's disease. Alz. Dis. Assoc. Disord. 12: 378-383.
  145. Armstrong RA (1999a) Do β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in patients with Alzheimer'e disease and Down's syndrome grow according to the log-normal model? Neurosci Lett 261: 97-100.
  146. Armstrong RA, Smith SN (1999b) Factors associated with lobe division in the lichen Parmelia conspersa (Ehrh. ex. Ach.)Ach. Symbiosis 26: 265-277.
  147. Armstrong RA (1999c) Ocular disease and the new genetics. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt . 19: 193-195.
  148. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (1999d) Degeneration of cortical neurons associated with diffuse β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci. Res. Communs. 24: 89-97.
  149. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (1999e) The spatial patterns of Pick bodies. Pick cells and Alzheimer disease pathology in Pick's disease. Neuropathol 19: 64-70.
  150. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (1999f) Quantification of pathological lesions in the frontal and temporal lobe of ten patients diagnosed with Pick's disease. Acta Neuropathol 97: 456-462.
  151. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (1999g) Clustering of cerebral cortical lesions in patients with corticobasal degeneration. Neurosci Lett 268: 5-8.
  152. Armstrong RA (1999h) Clustering patterns of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease. Alz. Rep. 2: 151-154.
  153. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (1999i) Laminar distribution of Pick bodies, Pick cells and Alzheimer's disease pathology in the frontal and temporal cortex in Pick's disease. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 25: 266-271.
  154. Armstrong RA (1999j) Multiple sclerosis and the eye. Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 19: S32-S42.
  155. Livesley MA, Smith SN, Armstrong RA, Barker GA (1999k) Characterisation of Aeromonas strains and species by pu;sed field gel electrophoresis and principle components analysis. J. Fish Dis. 22: 369-375.
  156. Smith SN, Armstrong RA, Barker M, Bird RA, Chohan R, Hartell NA, Whipps JM (1999l) Determination of Coniothyrium minitans conidial and germling lectin avidity by flow cytometry and digital microscopy. Mycol Res 103: 1533-1539.
  157. Armstrong RA (1999m) Visual signs and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Brit J. Optom. Disp. 7:135-139.
  158. Armstrong RA (2000a) Analysis of spatial patterns in histological sections of brain tissue using a method based on regression. J Neurosci Meth 95: 39-45
  159. Syed A, Armstrong RA, Smith CUM (2000b) Quantification of axonal loss in Alzheimer's disease: an image analysis study. Alz. Rep. 3: 19-24.
  160. Armstrong RA (2000c) Visual signs and symptoms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Brit. J. Optom. Disp. 8: 29-33.
  161. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (2000d) The spatial pattern of the vacuolation in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Neurosci Lett 281: 187-190.
  162. Armstrong RA, Nochlin D, Bird TD (2000e) Neuropathological heterogeneity in Alzheimer's disease: A study of 80 cases using principal components analysis. Neuropathol. 20: 31-37.
  163. Armstrong RA, Slade SV, Eperjesi F (2000f) An introduction to analysis of variance (ANOVA) with special reference to clinical experiments in optometry. Ophthal Physiol Opt 20: 235-241.
  164. Armstrong RA (2000g) Competitive interactions between four foliose lichen species with and without nutrient enrichment. Symbiosis 28: 323-335.
  165. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (2000h) A quantitative study of the pathological lesions in the neocortex and hippocampus of 12 patients with corticobasal degeneration. Exp Neurol 163: 348-356.
  166. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (2000i) Beta-amyloid deposition in the temporal lobe of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies: Comparison with non-demented cases and Alzheimer's disease. Dementia 11: 187-192.
  167. Armstrong RA, Smith SN (2000j) Eye infections caused by fungi (ocular mycoses). Brit. J. Optom. Disp. 8: 29-33.
  168. Hazel CA, Petrie KL, Armstrong RA, Benson MT, Frost NA (2000k) Visual function and subjective quality of life compared in subjects with acquired macular disease. Inv Opthal Vis Sci 41: 1309-1315.
  169. Armstrong RA (2000l) The spatial patterns of β-amyloid deposits and neurofibrillary tangles in the cerebral cortex in Alzheimer's disease. Alz Rep 3: 133-141.
  170. Armstrong RA (2000m) The visual complications of Parkinson's disease. Brit J Opt Disp 8: 86-90.
  171. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (2000n) Clustering of Pick bodies in the dentate gyrus in Pick's disease. Neuropathology 20: 170-175.
  172. Armstrong RA, Lantos PL, Cairns NJ (2000o) Laminar distribution of ballooned neurons and tau positive neurons with inclusions in patients with corticobasal degeneration. Neurosci Res Communs 27: 85-93.
  173. Armstrong RA (2000p) The microbiology of the eye. Ophthal Physiol Opt 20: 429-441.
  174. Armstrong RA (2001a) Diffuse β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits and neurons: in situ secretion or diffusion of Aβ ? Alz Rep 3: 289-294. 
  175. Armstrong RA, Lantos PL, Cairns NJ (2001b) The spatial patterns of prion protein deposits in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: comparison with β-amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Lett 298: 53-56.
  176. Armstrong RA (2001c) Changes in the clustering patterns of β-amyloid (Aβ) with age in Down's syndrome. Alz Rep 4: 37-43.
  177. Armstrong RA, Lantos PL, Cairns NJ (2001d) The spatial patterns of prion protein deposits in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Neuropathology 21: 19-24.
  178. Smith SN, Armstrong RA, Bird RA, Chohan R, Hartell NA, Poyner DA (2001e). Characterization of FITC-conjugated lectin binding to Candida albicans. Mycologia 93: 422-431.
  179. Armstrong RA, Lantos PL, Cairns NJ (2001f) What does the study of spatial patterns of pathological lesions tell us about the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Neuropathology 21: 1-12.
  180. Armstrong RA and Bradwell T (2001g) Variation in hypothallus width and the growth of the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. Symbiosis 30: 317-328.
  181. Armstrong RA, Lantos PL, Cairns NJ (2001h) The spatial patterns of pathological brain lesions in 12 patients with corticobasal degeneration. Pathophysiol 8: 47-53.
  182. Armstrong RA (2001i) Dispersion of classic β-amyloid deposits around blood vessels in Alzheimer's disease. Alz Rep 4: 103-108.
  183. Armstrong RA (2001j) Analysis of population dispersion in histological sections. Microscopy and Analysis 86: 13-15.
  184. Armstrong RA, Lantos PL, Cairns NJ (2001k) Correlations between the clustering patterns of the pathological changes in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Neurosci Res Comms 29: 89-98.
  185. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (2000l) Quantification of the vacuolation ('spongiform change') and prion protein deposition in 11 patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Acta Neuropathol 102: 591-596.
  186. Armstrong RA, Lantos PL, Cairns NJ (2001m) Quantification of the pathological changes with laminae depth in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Pathophysiology 8: 99-104.
  187. Armstrong RA (2001n) Size frequency distribution of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in dementia with Lewy bodies. Alz Rep 4: 167-172.
  188. Armstrong RA, Lantos PL, Cairns NJ (2001o) Spatial correlations between the vacuolation, prion protein deposits, and surviving neurons in the cerebral cortex in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Neuropathology 21: 266-271.
  189. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Ironside JW, Lantos PL (2002a) The spatial pattern of the vacuolation ('spongiform change') in the cerebral cortex in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Neurosci Res Communs 30: 43-50.
  190. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Ironside JW, Lantos PL (2002b) Quantification of vacuolation ('spongiform change'), surviving neurones and prion protein deposition in eleven cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 28: 129-135.
  191. Armstrong RA, Eperjesi F, Gilmartin B (2002c) The application of analysis of variance (ANOVA) to different experimental designs in optometry. Ophthal Physiol Opt 22: 248-256.
  192. Armstrong RA (2002d) Laminar distribution of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in dementia with Lewy bodies: comparison with Alzheimer's disease. Alz Rep 5: 7-12.
  193. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Ironside JW, Lantos PL (2002e) Quantitative variations in the pathology of 11 cases of variant Creutzfeldt-jakob disease (vCJD). Pathophysiol 8: 235-241.
  194. Armstrong RA (2002f) The effect of rock surface aspect on growth, size structure and competition in the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. Env Exp Bot 48: 187-194.
  195. Gardiner AM, Armstrong RA, Dunne MCM, Murray PI (2002g) Correlation between visual function and visual ability in patients with uveitis. Brit J Ophthalmol 86: 993-996.
  196. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (2002h) Are pathological lesions in neurodegenerative disorders the cause or the effect of the degeneration? Neuropathology 22: 114-127.
  197. Armstrong RA, Lantos PL, Cairns NJ (2002i) Spatial patterns of the vacuolation in subcortical white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Clin Neuropathol 21: 284-288.
  198. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Ironside JW, Lantos PL (2002j) The spatial patterns of prion protein deposits in cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Acta Neuropathol 104: 665-669.
  199. Armstrong RA (2002k) Measuring the degree of spatial correlation between pathological lesions in Alzheimer's disease. Alz Rep 5: 45-54.
  200. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Ironside JW, Lantos PL (2002l) Laminar distribution of the pathological changes in the cerebral cortex in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Folia Neuropathol 40: 165-171.
  201. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Ironside JW, Lantos PL (2003a) Florid prion protein (PrP) plaques in patients with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) are spatially related to blood vessels. Neurosci Res Communs 32: 29-36.
  202. Armstrong RA (2003b) Pathological changes in the primary visual cortex (area V1) in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Optom Vis Sci 80: 298-304.
  203. Armstrong RA (2003c) Lobe connections and lobe crowding are associated with growth rate in the lichen Xanthoparmelia conspersa. Symbiosis 34: 133-143.
  204. Armstrong RA (2003d) Quantifying the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders: quantitative measurements, sampling strategies and data analysis. Histopathology 42: 521-529.
  205. Cairns NJ and Armstrong RA (2003e) Clustering of neuronal inclusions in “dementia with neurofilament inclusions”. Acta Neuropathol 106: 125-128.
  206. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Ironside JW, Lantos PL (2003f) Does the neuropathology of human patients with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease reflect haematogenous spread of the disease? Neurosci Lett 348: 37-40.
  207. Armstrong RA, Lantos PL, Ironside JW, Cairns NJ (2003g) Differences in the density and spatial distribution of florid and diffuse plaques in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Clin Neuropathol 22: 209-214.
  208. Armstrong RA, Lantos PL, Cairns NJ (2003h) A quantitative study of the pathological changes in cortical neurons in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Neuropathol 23: 179-185.
  209. Armstrong RA (2003i) Measuring the degree of spatial correlation between histological features in thin sections of brain tissue. Neuropathol 23: 245-253.
  210. Armstrong RA, Lantos PL, Ironside JW, Cairns NJ (2003j) Spatial correlations between the vacuolation, prion protein deposition and surviving neurons in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. J Neural Transm 110: 1303-1311.
  211. Armstrong RA, Lantos PL, Cairns NJ (2004a) Spatial patterns of α-synuclein positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy. Move Disord 19: 109-112.
  212. Cairns NJ, Jaros, E, Perry RH, Armstrong RA (2004b) Temporal lobe pathology of human patients with neurofilament inclusion disease. Neurosci Lett 354: 245-247.
  213. Armstrong RA (2004c) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and the eye. Ophthal Physiol Opt 24: 148-149.
  214. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ (2004d) Spatial patterns of the pathological changes in the cerebellar cortex in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Folia Neuropathol 41: 183-189.
  215. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (2004e) A quantitative study of the pathological changes in ten patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). J Neural Transm 111: 485-495.
  216. Armstrong RA (2004f) Paediatric eye disorders: genetics. In: Paediatric Optometry, W Harvey & B Gilmartin (Eds), Butterworth Heinemann, Edinburgh, London, New York.
  217. Armstrong RA (2004g) Appendix 2: Genetics and the eye. In: Paediatric Optometry, W Harvey & B Gilmartin (Eds), Butterworth Heinemann, Edinburgh, London, New York.
  218. Cairns NJ, Jaros, E, Perry RH, Armstrong RA (2004h) Laminar distribution of neurofilament inclusions and swollen achromatic neurons in neurofilament inclusion disease (NID). Neurosci Res Communs 34: 104-111.
  219. Armstrong RA (2004i) (2003) Lobe growth in foliose lichen thalli. Current Topics in Plant Biology 4: 129-138.
  220. Cairns NJ, Armstrong RA (2004j) Quantification of the pathological changes in the temporal lobe of patients with a novel neurofilamentopathy: neurofilament inclusion disease (NID). Clin Neuropathol 23: 107-112.
  221. Elloway EAG, Armstrong RA, Bird RA, Kelly SL, Smith SN (2004k) Analysis of Acanthamoeba polyphaga surface carbohydrate exposure by FITC-lectin binding and florescence evaluation. J App Microbiol 97: 1319-1325.
  222. Armstrong RA (2005a) Growth curves of four crustose lichens. Symbiosis 38: 45-57.
  223. Armstrong RA, Eperjesi F, Gilmartin B (2005b) The use of correlation and regression methods in optometry. Clin Exp Optom 88: 81-88.
  224. Cairns NJ, Armstrong RA (2005c) Spatial correlations between the neuronal inclusions, swollen achromatic neurons, and glial cells in neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID). J Neural Transm 112: 473-480.
  225. Syed AB, Armstrong RA, Smith CUM (2005d) A quantitative analysis of optic nerve axons in elderly control subjects and patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Folia Neuropathol 43: 1-6.
  226. Armstrong RA, Lantos PL, Cairns NJ (2005e) Overlap between neurodegenerative disorders. Neuropathol 25: 111-124.
  227. Armstrong RA, Lantos PL, Cairns NJ (2005f) Multiple system atrophy: laminar distribution of the pathological changes in frontal and temporal neocortex. Clin Neuropathol 24: 230-235.
  228. Armstrong RA (2005g) Is there a spatial association between senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer’s disease? Folia Neuropathol 43: 133-138.
  229. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Ironside JW, Lantos PL (2005h) Size frequency distribution of prion protein (PrP) aggregates in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). J Neural Transm 112: 1565-1573.
  230. Cairns NJ, Armstrong RA (2005i) Spatial patterns of the pathological changes in the temporal lobe of patients with neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID). Neuropathology 25: 298-303.
  231. Armstrong RA (2005j) Radial growth of Rhizocarpon section Rhizocarpon lichen thalli over six years at Snoqualmie Pass in the Cascade Range, Washington State. Arct Antarc Alp Res 37: 411-415.
  232. Armstrong RA (2006a) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and vision. Clin Exp Optom 89: 3-11.
  233. Armstrong RA (2006b) Methods of studying the planar distribution of objects in histological sections of brain tissue. J Microsc 221: 153-158.
  234. Caddick JM, Hilton AC, Armstrong RA, Lambert PA, Worthington T, Elliott TSJ (2006c) Description and critical appraisal of principal components analysis (PCA) methodology applied to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. J Micro Biol Meth 65: 87-95.
  235. Armstrong RA (2006d) Plaques and tangles and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Fol Neuropathol 44: 1-11.
  236. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ (2006e) Topography of α-internexin-positive neuronal aggregates in 10 patients with neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease. Eur J Neurol 13: 528-532.
  237. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Ironside JW (2006f) Size distributions of the florid prion protein aggregates in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease follow a power-law function. Neuro Sci 27: 104-109.
  238. Armstrong RA (2006g) Modelling the growth of prion protein aggregates in the brain in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In Prions: New Research, Ed. BV Doupher, Nova Science Publishers.
  239. Armstrong RA (2006h) Laminar distribution of β-amyloid deposits in dementia with Lewy bodies and in Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Alz Dis & other Dementias 21: 175-181.
  240. Armstrong RA (2006i) Seasonal growth of the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.)DC. In south Gwynedd, Wales. Symbiosis 41: 97-102.
  241. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (2006j) Multiple system atrophy: Topographic distribution of the α-synuclein associated pathological changes. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders 12: 356-362.
  242. Armstrong RA, Kerty E, Skullerud K, Cairns NJ (2006k) Neuropathological changes in ten cases of neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID): a study using α-internexin immunohistochemistry and principal components analysis. J Neural Transm 113: 1207-1215.
  243. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ (2006l) Laminar degeneration of the frontal and temporal cortex in neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID). A study using α-internexin immunohistochemistry Clin Neuropathol 25: 209-215.
  244. Armstrong RA (2006m) Classic β-amyloid deposits cluster around large diameter blood vessels rather than capillaries in sporadic Alzheimer’ s disease. Curr Neurovasc Res 3: 289-294.
  245. Armstrong RA (2007a) Measuring the spatial arrangement patterns of pathological lesions in histological sections of brain tissue. Folia Neuropathol 44: 229-237.
  246. Armstrong RA, Lantos PL, Cairns NJ (2007b) Spatial topography of the neurofibrillary tangles in cortical and subcortical regions in progressive supranuclear palsy. Parkinsonism Rel Disord 13: 50-54.
  247. Armstrong RA, Welch AR (2007c) Competition in lichen communities. Symbiosis 43: 1-12.
  248. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ (2007d) Spatial patterns of the pathological changes in neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID). an α-internexin immunohistochemical studyJ Neural Transm 114: 451-456.
  249. Bradwell T, Armstrong RA (2007e) Growth rates of Rhizocarpon geographicum lichens: a review with new data from Iceland. J Quaternary Sci 22: 311-320.
  250. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (2007f) A quantitative study of the pathological changes in white matter in multiple system atrophy. Neuropathol 27: 221-227.
  251. Ghergell D, Hosking SL, Armstrong RA, Cunliffe IA (2007g) Autonomic dysfunction in unselected and untreated primary open angle glaucoma patients: a pilot study. Opthal Physiol Opt 27: 336-341.
  252. Armstrong RA (2007h) Neuropathological changes in striate and extrastriate visual cortex in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Clin Opthalmol 1: 119-125.
  253. Armstrong RA (2007i) Size frequency distributions of abnormal protein deposits in Alzheimer’s disease and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Folia Neuropathol 45: 108-114.
  254. Armstrong RA, Lantos PL, Cairns NJ (2007j) Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP): a quantitative study of the pathological changes in cortical and subcortical regions of eight cases. J Neural Trans 114: 1569-1577.
  255. Armstrong RA (2008a) Modelling the growth of prion protein aggregates in the brain in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: New Research, Ed. MJ Stones, Nova Science Publishers, pp 109-126.
  256. Armstrong RA (2008b) Pathological changes in the primary visual cortex (area V1) in Creutzfeldt-Jakob syndrome. In Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: New Research, Ed. MJ Stones, Nova Science Publishers, pp 53-70.
  257. Armstrong RA (2008c) Quantitative microscopic analysis of histological sections of brain tissue. In: Modern Research and educational Topics in Microscopy. Ed A Mendez-Vilas & J Diaz, Series 3, 1: 442-452.
  258. Armstrong RA (2008d) Visual signs and symptoms of Parkinsons’s disease. Clin Exp Optom 91: 129-138.
  259. Ghergell D, Hosking SL, Cunliffe IA, Armstrong RA (2008e) First-line therapy with latanoprost 0.005% results in improved ocular circulation in newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma patients: a prospective, 6-month, open-label study. Eye 22: 363-369.
  260. Armstrong RA (2008f) The spatial patterns of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in late-onset sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. ADRJ 1(4): 1-12.
  261. Armstrong RA (2008g) Clustering and periodicity of neurofibrillary tangles in the upper and lower cortical laminae in Alzheimer’s disease. Folia Neuropathol 46: 26-31.
  262. Armstrong RA, Syed AB, Smith CUM (2008h) Density and cross-sectional of axons in the olfactory tract in control subjects and Alzheimer’s disease: an image analysis study. Neurol Sci 29: 23-27.
  263. Armstrong RA, Lantos PL, Cairns NJ (2008i) What determines the molecular composition of abnormal protein aggregates in neurodegenerative disease? Neuropathol 28: 351-365.
  264. Heitmar R, Ghergel D, Armstrong R, Cubbidge R, Hosking S (2008j) The effect of voluntary fasting and dehydration on flicker-induced retinal vascular dilation in a healthy individual: a case report. J Med Case Rep 2: 153-157.
  265. Armstrong RA (2008k) The interface between Alzheimer’s disease, normal aging, and related disorders. Current Aging Science 1: 122-132.
  266. Armstrong RA (2009a) Pathological changes in the sporadic and variant forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) are spatially related to blood vessels. Brain Research Journal 2 (3) 149-162.
  267. Armstrong RA (2009b) Monthly fluctuations in radial growth of individual lobes of the lichen Parmelia conspersa (Ehrh. Ex Ach.) Ach. Symbiosis 47: 9-16.
  268. Armstrong RA (2009c) Spatial correlations between b-amyloid (Ab) deposits and blood vessels in early-onset Alzheimer’s disease. In: Alzheimer’s Disease in the Middle-Aged. Ed: Hyun Sil Jeong, Nova Science Publishers, pp 137-153.
  269. Armstrong RA (2009d) Spatial correlations between b-amyloid (Ab) deposits and blood vessels in familial Alzheimer’s disease. Folia Neuropathol 46: 241-248.
  270. Armstrong RA, Lantos PL, Cairns NJ (2009e) Hippocampal pathology in progressive supranuclear palsy (PS): a quantitative study of 8 cases. Clin Neuropathol 28: 46-53.
  271. Armstrong RA, Ironside JW, Lantos PL, Cairns NJ (2009f) A quantitative study of the pathological changes in the cerebellum in 15 cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 35: 36-45.
  272. Armstrong RA (2009g) Relationship between the microcirculation and the pathological changes in the sporadic and variant forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). In:Microcirculation: Function, Malfunction and Measurement. Ed: Ralph Thompson, Nova Science Publishers, pp 79-94.
  273. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ (2009h) Laminar distribution of the pathological changes in frontal and temporal cortex in 8 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy. Clin Neuropathol 28: 350-357.
  274. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ (2009i) Clustering and spatial correlations of the neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions, astrocytic plaques and ballooned neurons in corticobasal degeneration. J Neural Transm. 116: 1103-1110.
  275. Armstrong RA (2009j) Spatial correlations between the vacuolation, prion protein (PrPsc) deposits and the cerebral blood vessels in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Curr Neurovasc Res 6: 239-245.
  276. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ (2009k)  Size frequency distribution of the b-amyloid (Ab) deposits in dementia with Lewy bodies with associated Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Neurol Sci 30: 471-477.
  277. Armstrong RA, Smith SN (2009l) Carbohydrates in the hypothallus and areolae of the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. Symbiosis 49: 95-100.
  278. Armstrong RA (2009m) Alzheimer’s disease and the eye. J Optom 2: 103-111
  279. Hurrell E, Kucerova E, Loughlin M, Caubilla-Barron J, Hilton A, Armstrong RA, Smith C, Grant J, Shoo S, Forsythe S (2009n) Neonatal enteral feeding tubes as loci for colonization by members of the Enterobacteriaceae. BMC Infectious Diseases 9: 146-155.
  280. Armstrong RA (2009o) The molecular biology of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer’s disease. Folia Neuropathol  47: 289-299.
  281. Armstrong RA (2010a) A quantitative study of the pathological changes in the cortical white matter in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). In:Handbook on White Matter. Ed: TB Westland, RN Calton, Nova Science Publishers, pp 00-00.
  282. Armstrong RA (2010b) The spatial patterns of tau immunopositive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI) in the tauopathies. In:Neuroscience Research Advances. Ed: B. Figueredo, F  Melandez, Nova Science Publishers, pp 00-00.
  283. Armstrong RA, Ellis W, Hamilton RL, Mackenzie IRA, Hedreen J, Gearing M, Montine T, Vonsattel JP, Head E, Lieberman AP, Cairns NJ (2010c) Neuroapthological heterogeneity in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy: a quantitative study of 94 cases using principal components analysis. J Neural Transm 117: 227-239.
  1. Anderson JM, Hamon CGB, Morar C, Armstrong RA, Blair JA (1986) Studies on tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism in Down's Syndrome. Third International Down's syndrome Congress, April 1986.
  2. Myers D, Armstrong RA, Smith CUM (1987a) Pentoxifylline and the behaviour of 29-month female mice. Brain Research Association, 5th National Meeting, March 1987.
  3. Myers D, Armstrong RA, Smith CUM, Prior AM, Carter RA (1987b) Spatial arrangement patterns of senile plaques in post-mortem SDAT brains. Brain Research Association Meeting on Alzheimer's Disease, Southampton.
  4. Armstrong RA, Myers D, Smith CUM (1987c) Size class frequency distributions of senile plaques in post-mortem brains of 5 patients with SDAT. Brain Research Association Meeting of Alzheimer's Disease,Southampton.
  5. Myers D, Armstrong RA, Smith CUM, Carter RA (1987d) Are there two distinct populations of cored senile plaques in SDAT? Brain Research Association Meeting on Alzheimer's Disease, Southampton.
  6. Jones SA, Armstrong RA, Blair JA, Leeming RJ, Chaudry S, Swade C, Coppen A (1987e) Tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. Biochem Soc Trans 15:713-714.
  7. Myers D, Armstrong RA, Smith CUM (1988) Chronic administration of an aluminium-enriched diet impairs spatial orientation in a sub-group of C57B176 female mice. Brain Research Association Meeting, London.
  8. Armstrong RA, Janday B, Slaven A, Harding GFA (1989) The use of flash and pattern evoked fields in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease. 7th International Biomagnetism Conference, New York, August 1989, pp 287-288.
  9. Armstrong RA, Harding GFA, Slaven A, Furlong P, Janday B (1990a) Normative MEG data to flash and pattern reversal stimuli. Electro clin Neurophysiol 1P-3P.
  10. Myers D, Armstrong RA, Smith CUM (1990b) Neurohistological consequences of a long-term diet enriched in Aluminium and reduced inCa2+ and Mg2+. Neurosci Lett p38.
  11. Slaven A, Armstrong RA (1990c) The influence of age on the pattern and flash visual evoked field. Ophthal Physiol Opt 10:414.
  12. Slaven A, Degg C, Armstrong RA (1991a) Topography of visual evoked magnetic responses to pattern shift, pattern onset and flash stimuli.Ophthal Physiol Opt 11:P396.
  13. Armstrong RA, Myers D, Smith CUM (1991b) Distribution of A4 protein and neurofibrillary change in the hippocampus in Alzheimer's disease. Euro.J. Neuro. Supple 4:P182.
  14. Harding GFA, Armstrong RA, Janday BS (1991c). Topographic study of the visual evoked magnetic reponse. 8th International Biomagnetism Conference, Munster, pp159-160.
  15. Degg C, Armstrong RA, Slaven A, Harding GFA (1991d) The visual evoked magnetic response to a pattern onset stimulus. 8th International Biomagnetism Conference, Munster,pp161-162.
  16. Armstrong RA, Degg C, Slaven A (1991e) Latency and variability of the visual evoked magnetic response: A comparison of two single channel magnetometers. 8th International Biomagnetism Conference, Munster,pp163-164.
  17. Armstrong RA, Slaven A, Harding GFA (1991f) Normative data for two visually evoked magnetic components. 8th International Biomagnetism Conference, Munster,pp165-166.
  18. Harding GFA, Armstrong RA, Janday B (1992a) Visual evoked electrical and magnetic response to half-field stimulation using pattern reversal stimulation. Ophthal Physiol Opt 12:P87.
  19. Armstrong RA, Myers D, Smith CUM (1992b) Principal components analysis of Alzheimer's disease based on neuropathological data: A study of 79 patients. Neurosci Lett 42: S38.
  20. Armstrong RA, Anderson J, Cowburn JD, Cox J, Blair JA (1992c). The influence of aluminium, administered in the diet and in drinking water on biopterin metabolism in the rodent. Biol Chem, 373:P986.
  21. Syed AB, Armstrong RA, Smith CUM (1993a) Large diameter optic nerve axon fibres in Alzheimer's disease. Ophthal Physiol Opt 13:104.
  22. Degg C, Armstrong RA (1993b) Topography of the visual evoked magnetic response and hemispherical specialization. Ophthal Physiol Opt 13:107.
  23. Slaven A, Degg C, Armstrong RA (1993c) Influence of check and field size on the visual evoked magnetic response to a pattern shift stimulus. Ophthal Physiol Opt 13:109.
  24. Armstrong RA, Myers D, Smith CUM (1993d) The density of mature β/A4 deposits is enhanced in Alzheimer's disease cases with pronounced congophilic angiopathy. Brain Res Assoc Abstr 10: P24.
  25. Cattel R, Prasher V, Armstrong RA, Blair JA (1993e) Tetrahydrobiopterin in Down's syndrome. 12th Inter. Winter Workshop on Biochemical and Clinical aspects of Pteridines, Pteridines 4:P95.
  26. Edwards P, Cattel R, Blair JA, Armstrong RA (1993f) Pattern visual evoked potentials in man and tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism. 12th Inter. Winter Workshop on Biochemical and Clinical aspects of Pteridines, Pteridines 4:P96-97.
  27. Hodgkins P, Blair JA, Armstrong RA (1993g) The case for aluminium as the neurotoxin in sporadic Alzheimer's disease. 12th Inter. Winter Workshop on Biochemical and Clinical aspects of Pteridines, Pteridines 4:P99.
  28. Degg C, Slaven A, Bedford JL, Armstrong RA (1993h) Hemispherical differences in the pattern onset visual evoked magnetic response. Advances in Biomagnetism Abstracts, Vienna., 247-248.
  29. Bedford JL, Degg C, Armstrong RA (1993i) Distributed source analyses of he pattern onset visual evoked magnetic response. Advances in Biomagnetism Abstracts, Vienna., 249-250.
  30. Degg C, Slaven A, Armstrong RA (1993j) Chronotopographical analysis of the visual evoked magnetic response (VEMR): Implications for waveform peak identification. Prog Vis Sci P6.
  31. Slaven A, Armstrong RA (1994a) Influence of blur on the visual evoked magnetic response to a pattern reversal stimulus. Ophthal Physiol Opt 14:P108.
  32. Syed AB, Armstrong RA, Smith CUM (1994b) The incidence of corpora amylacea (CA) in the optic nerve of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Brain Res Assoc Abstr 11: P38.
  33. Winsper S, Armstrong RA, Pall H, Fuchs D, Blair JA (1994c) Serum neopterin levels and gallium transferrin binding in Parkinson's disease. Brain Res Assoc Abstr 11:P48.
  34. Armstrong RA (1994d) β-Amyloid (Αβ) deposition in elderly non-demented patients and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Brainscan, Oct: P11.
  35. Armstrong RA, Myers D, Smith CUM. (1995a) What determines the size frequency distribution of β-Amyloid (Αβ) deposits in Alzheimer's disease patients? Brainscan, Apr: P13, (Abstract).
  36. Armstrong RA (1995b) Is the clustering of β-Amyloid (Αβ) deposits in the frontal cortex of Alzheimer patients determined by blood vessels? Brainscan, Sept 1995, P17, (Abstract).
  37. Armstrong R, Cairns N, Patel R., Lantos P (1996a) Relationships between β-Amyloid (Αβ) deposits and blood vessels in familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease. 91st Meeting of Brit. Neuropath. Soc. (11-12 Jan 1996), Neuropathol. & Appl. Neurobiol., Abstracts P8.
  38. Armstrong R, Cairns N, Patel R., Lantos P, Rossor MN (1996b) Relationships between β-Amyloid (Αβ) deposits and blood vessels in patients with sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease. Brainscan, June 1996, P8, (Abstract).
  39. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (1997a) Dementia with Lewy bodies: clustering of Lewy bodies in human patients. Brainscan, May 1997, P6 (Abstract).
  40. Hazel CA, Armstrong RA, Latham K, Benson MT (1998a) The correlation between tests of visual function and perceived visual ability in central field loss patients. IOVS 39: S841.
  41. Armstrong RA, Cairns NJ, Lantos PL (1998b) Clustering of Pick bodies in patients with Pick's disease. Brainscan, April 1998, 46: P2.
  42. Armstrong RA (2003) Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and the eye. BCOVS, Dec 18.
  43. Wevill M, Hanratty M, Armstrong RA (2005) Predicting changes in measured intraocular pressure with non-contact tonometry after LASIK. Eur Soc Cat Refr Surg Rome, Feb 4-6: P30.
  1. Armstrong RA, Hawkes HA (1985) Survey of flora and surface fresh waters in an area south of IBM Plant (Havant) to Coast. Report No.C00301, Bostock, Hill and Rigby, 1-14.
  2. Armstrong RA (1991a) Day on Alzheimer's disease. Healthbeat, March 1991,P24.
  3. Armstrong RA (1991b) Looking at Alzheimer's Disease. I. Symptoms, Diagnosis and Changes in the brain. Optometry Today, June 1991, p10-11.
  4. Armstrong RA (1991c) Looking at Alzheimer's Disease. II. Visual changes. Optometry Today, July 1991,p
  5. Armstrong RA (1991d) Looking at Alzheimer's Disease. III. The patient in the practice. Optometry Today, Oct.1991, P12-13.
  6. Armstrong RA (1992) Multiple Sclerosis: Natural History, Diagnosis and Changes in the Brain. Optometry Today,Nov 16,22-24.
  7. Armstrong RA (1993a) Ophthalmological manifestations of Multiple Sclerosis. Optometry Today, Feb 8,32-34.
  8. Armstrong RA (1993b) AIDS: Structure, replication and spread of the AIDS virus. Optometry Today, March 9th, 22-23.
  9. Armstrong RA (1993c) AIDS: Neurological and ophthalmological aspects. Optometry Today, June 28th,32-33.
  10. Armstrong RA (1993d) Parkinson's disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Changes in the Brain. Optometry Today, October 18th, 19-20.
  11. Armstrong RA (1994a) Parkinson's disease: Visual aspects. Optometry Today, June 6th, 36-38.
  12. Armstrong RA (1994b) The Human Immune System. I. Components of the immune system. Optometry Today, Oct 10th, 22-25.
  13. Armstrong RA (1995a) The Human Immune System. II. Auto-Immune Disorders. Optometry Today, Feb13th, 24-27.
  14. Armstrong RA (1995b) Alzheimer's disease and Vision: A proposed new diagnostic test. Optometry Today, Jul 17th.
  15. Armstrong RA, Carroll H (1996a) Neurological and ocular abnormalities in patients with Down's syndrome. Optometry Today, Feb 26th, 22-24.
  16. Armstrong RA (1996b) The Human Immune System Part 1. Indian Optician Jan-Feb,46-48. (reprinted from Optometry Today). 
  17. Armstrong RA (1996c) The Human Immune System Part 2: Auto-immune disorders. Indian Optician Mar-Apr, 30-32. (reprinted from Optometry Today).
  18. Armstrong RA (1996d) Bacteria and the eye. Optometry Today, Oct 21st, 28-30
  19. Armstrong RA (1997a) Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease and Vision. Optometry Today, April 4th, 44-47.
  20. Armstrong RA, Smith SN and Titcomb LC (1997b) Fungi and the eye. Optometry Today, May 16th 32-35.
  21. Armstrong RA (1998a) Viruses and the eye. Optometry Today, April 10th 35-39.
  22. Armstrong RA (1998b) Free radicals, oxidative stress and cataract. Optometry Today, November 20th, 34-37.
  23. Armstrong RA and Smith SN (1999a) Retinoblastoma and the new genetics. Optometry Today, March 12th, 43-47.
  24. Armstrong RA and Smith SN (1999b) Retinitis pigmentosa and the new genetics. Optometry Today, December 17th, 26-32.
  25. Armstrong RA and Eperjesi F (2000a) The use of data analysis methods: Basic concepts for optometrists. Optometry Today, June 16th 36-40.
  26. Armstrong RA and Smith SN (2000b) The genetics of cataract. Optometry Today, November 17th, 33-35.
  27. Armstrong RA (2000c) The ROD photoreceptor ABCR gene and its significance in ocular disease. Optician 220 (Dec 15) 19-24.
  28. Armstrong RA and Eperjesi F (2001a) Data analysis methods in optometry: Is there a difference between two samples? Optometry Today, Jan 26th: 27-31.
  29. Armstrong RA (2001b) Genetics of ocular disease: 1) Basic concepts: cells, chromosomes and inheritance. Optician 222 (July 20): 22-27.
  30. Armstrong RA and Smith SN (2001c) Ulcerative keratitis caused by Acanthamoeba. Optometry Today, Sept 21st: 36-38.
  31. Armstrong RA (2001d) Genetics of ocular disease: 2) Basic concepts: DNA, proteins and genes. Optician 222 (Aug 17): 16-22.
  32. Armstrong RA (2001e) Genetics of ocular disease: 3) Patterns of inheritance of ocular disease. Optician 222 (Sep 21): 18-26.
  33. Armstrong RA (2001f) Genetics of ocular disease: 4) New developments in genetics Optician 222 (Oct 19): 22-25.
  34. Armstrong RA and Smith SN (2001g) The genetics of glaucoma. Optometry Today, November 16th: 30-33.
  35. Armstrong RA (2002a) Gene therapy and ocular disease. Optician 223 (April 12): 26-31.
  36. Armstrong RA and Eperjesi F (2002b) Data analysis methods in optometry: Part 3. The analysis of frequencies and proportions. Optometry Today, May 31: 34-37.
  37. Armstrong RA (2003a) Dementia with Lewy bodies: A 'new' type of dementia with visual symptoms. Optometry Today, January 10: 39-41.
  38. Armstrong RA and Smith SN (2003b) The Human Genome Project: Its relevance to ocular disease. Optometry Today, February 7: 39-43.
  39. Armstrong RA (2003c) Is smoking a risk factor for AMD? Optometry Today, February 21: 42-45.
  40. Armstrong RA (2003d) 'Bug eyed': Bacterial eye infections and their treatment. The Microbiologist 4: 26-30.
  41. Armstrong RA (2003e) Getting your proteins in a twist: disease caused by prions. The Microbiologist 4: 32-35.
  42. Armstrong RA and Smith SN (2003f) The genetics of glaucoma. Indian Optician (200th Special issue). Sept/Oct 96-102.
  43. Armstrong RA (2004a) Could lichens grow on Mars? The Microbiologist 4:30-33.
  44. Armstrong RA and Eperjesi F (2004b) Data analysis methods in optometry: Part 4. Introduction to analysis of variance. Optometry Today Mar 12th: 33-36.
  45. Armstrong RA and Smith SN (2004c) The genetics of optic atrophy. Optometry Today July 30th, 32-36.
  46. Armstrong RA (2004d) Lichens, Lichenometry and global warming. The Microbiologist 5: 32-35.
  47. Armstrong RA (2004e) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and the eye. Indian Optician Sept/Oct 80-88.
  48. Armstrong RA (2004f) AMD and smoking: An update. Optometry Today 44.24: 44-46.
  49. Armstrong RA and Hilton A (2004g) The use of analysis of variance (ANOVA) in applied microbiology. The Microbiologist 5: 18-21.
  50. Hilton A and Armstrong RA (2005a) Stat Note1: Is the data normal? The Microbiologist June: 34-35.
  51. Armstrong RA and Eperjesi F (2005b) Data analysis methods in optometry: Part 5 Correlation. Optometry Today Feb 25th: 34-37.
  52. Armstrong RA (2005c) Ocular and Ophthalmic features of Alzheimer’s disease. Indian Optician May/June 108-114.
  53. Hilton A and Armstrong RA (2005d) Stat Note2: Describing the normal. The Microbiologist Sept: 30-33.
  54. Hilton A and Armstrong RA (2005e) Stat Note3: Testing the difference between two groups. The Microbiologist, Dec: 30-32.
  55. Armstrong RA (2006a) Developmental anomalies of the eye: The genetic link. Optometry Today Jan: 29-32.
  56. Hilton A and Armstrong RA (2006b) Stat Note4: What if the data are not normal? The Microbiologist, March: 34-37.
  57. Hilton A and Armstrong RA (2006c) Stat Note5: Is one set of data more variable than another? The Microbiologist, June: 34-36.
  58. Hilton A and Armstrong RA (2006d) Stat Note 6: Post-hoc ANOVA tests. The Microbiologist, September: 34-36.
  59. Hilton A and Armstrong RA (2006e) Stat Note 7: Chi-square contingency tables. The Microbiologist, December:36-37.
  60. Armstrong RA and Eperjesi F (2006f) Data analysis methods in optometry: Part 6 Fitting a regression line to data. Optometry Today Jun 2: 48-51.
  61. Hilton A and Armstrong RA (2007a) Stat Note 8:Statistical power and sample size. The Microbiologist, March:38-40.
  62. Armstrong RA (2007b) Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP): General pathology and visual signs and symptoms. Optometry Today March 23rd, 48-52.
  63. Armstrong RA (2007c) The unnatural history of the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. Microbiologist, June: 36-39.
  64. Hilton A and Armstrong RA (2007d) Stat Note 9: The one-way analysis of variance (random effects model): the ‘nested’ or ‘hierarchical’ design . The Microbiologist, June: 40-41.
  65. Armstrong RA and Eperjesi F (2007e) Data analysis methods in optometry: Part 7: Multiple linear regression. Optometry Today Jun 29: 46-50.
  66. Hilton A and Armstrong RA (2007f) Stat Note 10: The two-way analysis of variance. The Microbiologist, September: 41-42.
  67. Hilton A and Armstrong RA (2007g) Stat Note 11: The two-factor analysis of variance. The Microbiologist, December: 40-42.
  68. Hilton A and Armstrong RA (2008a) Stat Note 12: The split-plot analysis of variance. The Microbiologist, March: 38-39.
  69. Armstrong RA and Eperjesi F (2008b) Data analysis methods in optometry: Part 8: Principal components analysis and factor analysis. Optometry Today March 7: 40-44.
  70. Armstrong RA (2008c) Lichen competition: two-dimensional warfare in slow motion. The Microbiologist, June: 27-31.
  71. Hilton A and Armstrong RA (2008d) Stat Note 13: A more complex analysis of variance incorporating a ‘repeated measures’ factor. The Microbiologist, June: 37-39.
  72. Hilton A and Armstrong RA (2008e) Stat Note 14: The correlation of two variables (Pearson’s ‘r’). The Microbiologist, September: 34-36.
  73. Armstrong RA (2008f) The genetics of primary congenital glaucoma. Optometry Today December 12, 40-43.
  74. Hilton A and Armstrong RA (2008g) Stat Note 15: The non-parametric correlation coefficients. The Microbiologist, December: 41-43.
  75. Hilton A and Armstrong RA (2009a) Stat Note 16: Fitting a regression line to data. The Microbiologist, March: 40-42.
  76. Hilton A and Armstrong RA (2009b) Stat Note 17: Using a regression line for prediction and calibration. The Microbiologist,June:36-37.
  77. Hilton A and Armstrong RA (2009c) Stat Note 18: Comparison of regression lines. The Microbiologist, September: 40-41. 

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