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Dr. Yassir T. Makkawi

Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry (CEAC)

European Bioenergy Research Institute (EBRI) 

Dr. Yassir T. Makkawi

I obtained my PhD in Chemical Engineering at Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh (2003). Prior to that, I worked as a process engineer for eight years, serving the oil and gas industry sectors in the Middle East. My first academic post was at Heriot-Watt University, where I worked as a Research Associate. I then moved to the University of Edinburgh as a Research Fellow, then to the University of Sheffield as a Teaching and Research Fellow. I joined the academic staff at Aston University as a lecturer in 2008.

My research is focused on the broad areas of particle technology and biomass thermochemical conversion. I have particular current interest in wet suspension and particle-particle interactions, experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modelling of biomass gasification and pyrolysis in fluidized bed reactors, adsorption for gas separation and purification.

Position: Senior Lecturer in Chemical Engineering 

Phone:  0121 204 3398
Email: y.makkawi@aston.ac.uk
Room: MB124

  • Postgraduate Certificate of Professional Practice (PGCPP) in Higher Education, Aston University, Birmingham, UK, 2012.
  • PhD in Chemical Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK, 2003.
  • MSc in Chemical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, KSA, 1995.
  • BSc in Chemical Engineering, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan, 1991
  • Aug 2013 – present: Senior Lecturer, Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Aston University, Birmingham
  • Aug 2008 – Jul 2013: Lecturer, Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Aston University, Birmingham
  • Nov 2006 – Jul 2008: Teaching and Research Fellow, Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield
  • Jun 2006 – Oct 2006: Research Fellow, Chemical Engineering, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh
  • Jun 2003 – May 2006: Research Associate, Chemical Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh
 

Current teaching:

  • Introduction to Transfer Processes- mass/energy (1st year level)
  • Separation Processes ( 2nd and 3rd year levels)
  • Advanced Process Design (3rd year level)
  • Process Laboratory (2nd year level)
  • Research projects (4th year level)

Past teaching:

  • Engineering Drawing (1st year level)- (2006-2008)
  • Particle technology (2nd and 3rd years level)- (2008-2013)
  • Process and Product Design (1st and 2nd year levels)- (2009-2011)

  • Environmental- Gaseous Emissions (MSc Level)- (2006-2008)

  • Member of Aston University Industrial Placement team and acting Industrial Placement Tutor for Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry

  • Member of Aston University Bilogical Safety Committee

  • Member of the Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry Curriculum Review Committee

  • Second Year Chemical Engineering Tutor

  • Mathematical modelling and simulation of particle-gas systems
  • Fluidized bed processing (chemical, thermal and physical)
  • Energy conversion and renewable energy resources
  • Biomass thermal conversion (gasification and pyrolysis)
  • Computional Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modelling 
  • Gas separation and purification by adsorption
Current research grants
  • EPSRC grant- Project title: Real time control of gasifiers- increase tolerance to biomass and reduce emissions (2015-2018); £351k; in collaboration with Dr Ian Watson (Project lead from Glasgow University (Aston principal investigator: Makkawi )
  • EPSRC case-award with Dow Corning Ltd- Project title: Gas purification for the silicone industry (2012-2015); £92k (Principal Investigator: Makkawi)
  • The Leverhulme Trust- Project title: Wet and dry particle flow at the intermediate regime (2012-2015); in collaboration with Prof Raffaela Ocone (Heriot-Watt) and Sotos Generalis (Aston University); £175k (Principal Investigator: Makkawi)
  • Industrial collaboration fund with Dow Corning Ltd- Project title: gas purification by adsorption (2012-2015); £25k (Principal Investigator: Makkawi
Research sponsors
  • The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC, UK)
  • The Leverhulme Trust, UK
  • Dow Corning Ltd, UK
Particles Suspension and Processing (PSP) 

In the process industry, particles processing by suspension is of particular interest due to the enhanced heat and mass transfer characteristics. This is commonly referred to as fluidized bed processing and is found in most of the chemical processes, including food production, pharmaceutical, petrochemicals and energy. Our research is uniquely combining knowledge of particle technology and energy conversion in order to solve challenging engineering problems and develop novel and sustainable processes for future industrial applications.

We are particularly interested in applying mathematical modelling and Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) for studying the physical, chemical and thermal processing of particles by suspension. This is of direct relevance to fluidized bed processing such as in granulation, drying, gas cleaning, chemical looping, catalytic cracking and biomass thermal conversion. We are currently looking at (i) developing new models for the interaction of wet/dry particles at the micro-scale level (ii) working with industrial collaborator on novel processes involving the application of adsorption for gas separation and thermal conversion of biomass to fuel, and (iii) developing theoretical approaches and computional models for the prediction of biomass gasification and pyrolysis in fluidized bed reactorsOur theoretical approach is supported by state of the art experimental facilities including a range of modern fluidized bed systems, gas adsorption unit, biomass gasifiers and analytical techniques. 

We have established research collaborations with national and international institutions including Heriot-Watt University (UK), Glasgow University and the Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from Alternative Resources (Canda). We are also currently in the proposal stage of collaborations with research instututes in Qatar and Egypt. Our current research is funded by the UK research counciles and industrial collaborators such as Dow Corning Ltd., EPSRC and the Leverhulme Trust.

Resaerch figure

  1. Dr Paula Blanco- Research Fellow. 
  2. Mr. Maxwell Ozonoh- PhD (2014-2017): Gasification of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge in a circulating fluidized bed reactor.     

  3. Mr Jai Lad - PhD (2011-2014): A greener approach for the purification of methyl Chloride for silicone industry.
  4. Dr Xi Yu - Postdoctoral Research Fellow (2012-2015): Wet and dry particle flow at the intermediate regime.
  5. Mr Muktar Bashir - PhD (2013-2016): A novel approach for the integration of concentrated sold energy with biomass thermochemical conversion.  
  6. Mr Francis Elewuwa - PhD (2012-2015): Modelling and simulation of a novel adsorption/desorption process for gas purification and hydrogen production. 

Patents:

1. Yassir Makkawi (Sole inventor) “Solar gasification of biomass for clean production of H2 rich fuel gas”. UK application- PAT-2011-036 - RPG/CP6796916.

2. Yassir Makkawi (lead inventor) “Syngas production from paper mill waste”. UK application- Submitted in 2013. 

Book Chapters:

1. Yassir Makkawi “Reactor design and its impact on performance and products” published in in a new book under the title “Transformation of Biomass: Theory to Practice”, ISBN 978-1-119-97327-0 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (2014). 

2. Yassir Makkawi and Raffaella Ocone “Mass transfer in fluidized bed drying of moist particulate” published in a new book under the title “Mass Transfer”, ISBN 978-953-307-215-9, INTECH (2011). 

 Journal Papers

 2015

1. Yu, X., Ocone, R., Generalis, S., Makkawi, Y., Experiments and modelling of slightly wet fluidization, Chem Engineering Science (Submitted)

2. Elewuwa, F., Makkawi, Y., Hydrogen production by steam reforming of DME in a large scale CFB reactor: Part I: Computational model and predictions, International Journal of hydrogen production (Submitted) .

3. Yu, X., Hassan, M., Ocone, R., Makkawi, Y., A CFD study of gas-soid separation in a downer pyrolysis reactor equipped with a novel gas-solid separator- II: Thermochemical performance and products, Fuel Processing Technology, 2015, 51-63.

2014

1. Yu, X., Makkawi, Y., Ocone, R., Berruti, R., Beriens, C., Huard, M., 2014. A CFD study of biomass pyrolysis in a downer reactor equipped with a novel gas-solid separator- I: hydrodynamic performance. Fuel Processing Technology, 2014, 366-382.

2. Lad, J. and Makkawi, Y., 2014. Adsorption of Dimethyl ether (DME) on zeolite molecular sieves at low pressure, Chemical Engineering Journal, 2014, 335-346.

2013

1. Kelwin, C, Makkawi, Y., Hounslow, M., 2013. A priori prediction of aggregation efficiency and rate constant for fluidized bed melt granulation, Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 98, 291-297.

2011

1. Kelwin, C, Makkawi, Y., Hounslow, M., 2011. Time scale analysis for fluidized bed melt granulation- I: granule-granule and granule-droplet collision rates, Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 66, Issue 3, 318-326.

2. Kelwin, C, Makkawi, Y., Hounslow, M., 2011. Time scale analysis for fluidized bed melt granulation- II: binder spreading rate, Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 66, Issue 3, 327-335.

3. Kelwin, C, Makkawi, Y., Hounslow, M., 2011. Time scale analysis for fluidized bed melt granulation- III: binder solidification rate, Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 66, Issue 3, 336-341.

2009

1. Makkawi, Y. and Ocone, R., 2009. Mass transfer coefficient for drying of moist particulate in a bubbling fluidized bed. Chemical Engineering Technology, 1-10.

2007

1. Makkawi, Y. and Ocone, R., 2007. Integration of ECT measurements with hydrodynamic modelling of conventional gas-solid bubbling bed. Chemical Engineering Science, 4304-4315.

2006

1. Makkawi, Y. and Ocone, R., 2006. A model for granular flows in a horizontal duct with a smooth merge of rapid-intermediate-dense flows. Chemical Engineering Science, 4271-4281.

 2. Makkawi, Y., Wright, P. C. and Ocone, R., 2006. The effect of friction and inter-particle cohesive forces on the hydrodynamics of gas-solid flow: a comparative analysis of theoretical predictions and experiments. Powder Technology, 163, 69-79.

2005

1. Makkawi, Y. and Ocone, R., 2005. Modelling of particle stress at the dilute-intermediate-dense flow regimes: A review. KONA - Powder Science and Technology, No.23, 49-63.

2004

1. Makkawi, Y. and Wright, P. C., 2004. Electrical Capacitance Tomography for conventional fluidized bed measurements- remarks on the measuring technique. Powder Technology, 148, 142-157.

 2. Makkawi, Y. and Wright, P. C., 2004. Tomographic analysis of dry/semi-wet bed fluidization: the effect of small liquid loading and particle size on the bubbling behavior. Chemical Engineering Science, 59 (1), 201-213.

2003

1. Makkawi, Y. and Wright, P. C., 2003. The void function and effective drag force for fluidized beds. Chemical Engineering Science, 58 (13), 2035-2051.

2002

1. Makkawi, Y. and Wright, P. C., 2002. Fluidization regimes in a conventional fluidized bed characterized by means of Electrical Capacitance Tomography. Chemical Engineering Science, 57 (13), 2411-2437.

 2. Makkawi, Y. and Wright, P. C., 2002. Optimization of experiment span and data acquisition rates for reliable Electrical Capacitance Tomography measurement in fluidization studies- a case study. Measurement Science and Technology, 13 (12), 1831-1841.

 3. Makkawi, Y. and Wright, P. C., 2002. Tomographic analysis of dry and semi wet fluidization, Short article. The Chemical Engineer Journal.

1999

 1. Demirel, Y., Abu-Al-Saud, B. A., Al-Ali H. H. and Makkawi, Y., 1999. Packing size and shape effects on forced convection in large rectangular packed ducts with asymmetric heating, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 42 (17), 3267-3277.

1998

 1. Makkawi, Y., Y. Demirel and H. H. Al-Ali, 1998. Numerical analysis of convection heat transfer in a rectangular packed duct with asymmetric heating, Energy Conversion and Management,39(56), 455-463.

Conference Papers and Presentations

 2015 

1. Francis Elewuwa, Yassir Makkawi, Computional modelling of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming in a dual fluidized bed system, AICHE spring meeting during, April 26-30,l 2015, Austin, USA.

2. Muktar Bashir, Yassir Makkawi, Modelling of a solar-thermal reactor for biomass fast pyrolysis, AICHE spring meeting during, April 26-30,l 2015, Austin, USA. 

3. Xi Yu,  Raffaella Ocone, Yassir Makkawi, Parametric analysis of biomass fast pyrolysis in a dual fluidized bed reactor, 22nd International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion, June 14-17, 2015, Turku, Finland.  

2014

1. Xi Yu, Sotos Generalis, Raffaella Ocone, Yassir Makkawi, Improved two-fluid model for bubbling fluidized beds, 12th UK Particle Technology Forum, 16-17 September, Manchester, UK.

2. Makkawi, Y., Xi, Yu, A CFD study of biomass pyrolysis in a downer reactor. 3rd International Conference on Chemical and Biological Processes (ICCBP 2014), 19-21 December 2014, Dubai

3. Xi Yu, Sotos Generalis, Raffaella Ocone, Yassir Makkawi, Simulation of slightly wet suspension in a bubbling fluidized bed, 12th UK Particle Technology Forum, 16-17 September, Manchester, UK.

5. Yu, X., Ocone, R., Makkawi, Y., A CFD study of biomass pyrolysis in a downer reactor equipped with a novel gas-solid separator. Pyro2014, May 19-23, 2014, Birmingham, UK.

6. Bashir, M. and Makkawi, Y., CFD modelling of biomass fast pyrolysis in a solar trough receiver/reactor, 2nd international symposium on Energy Challenges and Mechanics, 19-21 Aug 2014, Aberdeen, UK. 

2013

1. Makkawi, Y. and Ocone, R. “Geldart Classification and Limitations of the Kinetic Theory of Granular Flow in Solid-Gas Modelling, AIChE Annual Meeting, November 3-8, 2013, San Francisco, USA

 2. Yu, X., Ocone, R., Sotos, G., Makkawi, Y., New constitutive equations for solid stress in slight wet particulate flow, Uk-China international particle technology forum IV 15-19 October 2013. Shanghai, China.

3. Makkawi, Y., Hassan, M., Modelling and simulation of biomass thermal conversion to hydrogen-rich gas in a short CFB riser. BioEnergy IV: Innovations in Biomass Conversion for Heat, Power, Fuels and Chemicals, June 2-7, 2013, Otranto, Italy.

 4. Yu, X., Ocone, R. Makkawi, Y., CFD study of gas-solid behaviour in a downer reactor: An Eulerian-Eulerian approach.BioEnergy IV: Innovations in Biomass Conversion for Heat, Power, Fuels and Chemicals, June 2-7, 2013, Otranto, Italy.

4. Yu, X., Ocone, R., Sotos, G., Makkawi, Y., Inter-particle force and stress models for wet and dry particulate flow at the intermediate flow regime. 2nd IMA Conference on Dense Granular Flows, July 1-4, 2013, Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge, UK. 

2011

1. Makkawi, Y., Particle to gas heat transfer coefficient in a circulating fluidized bed riser. International Conference on Circulating Fluidized Beds and Fluidization Technology- CFB 10, 1-6 May 2011, USA, Oregon. 

2009

1. Makkawi, Y., Prediction of the hydrodynamics in slightly wet suspended particles IMA Conference on Dense Granular Flows, Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 5-9 Jan 2009, Cambridge, UK. 

2008

1. Nitert, B. J., Makkawi, Y., Hounslow, M. J.. Product engineering for crystallization: A step by step process. 17th International Symposium on Industrial Crystallization- ISIC 17, 14-17 September 2008, Maastricht, The Netherlands. 

2007

1. Makkawi, Y., Duncan, J., McAndrew, M., Ocone, R.. Drying of moist particulate in bubbling fluidized bed. AICHE annual meeting, 4-9 Nov 2007. Salt Lake Utah- USA. 

2006

1. Makkawi, Y., Wright, P. C., Ocone, R., Experimental observations of wet bed fluidization hydrodynamics. 5th World Congress on Particles Technology, 23-27 April 2006. Orlando FL- USA.

 2. Makkawi, Y. and Ocone, R., Validation of CFD model for fluidized bed over broad ranges of operating conditions. 5th World Congress on Particles Technology, 23-27 April 2006. Orlando FL- USA. 

2005

 1. Makkawi, Y. and Ocone, R., Simulation of dense and intermediate granular flow in a horizontal duct. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress of Chemical Engineering- 2005. Galsgow- UK.

2. Chuntanapum, A, Makkawi, Y, Arrighi, V, Ocone, R., Particles suspension in viscous fluids. 7th World Congress of Chemical Engineering- 2005. Galsgow- UK. 

2004

1. Makkawi, Y. and Ocone, R., Hydrodynamic simulation of gas-solid flow in a horizontal duct using kinetic-frictional stress models. AICHE annual meeting, 7-11 Nov 2004. Austin TX- USA.

2. Makkawi, Y. Wright, P. and Ocone, R., Comparative analysis of experimental and modelling of gas solid flow hydrodynamics: Effect of friction and interparticle cohesion forces. AICHE annual meeting, 7-11 Nov 2004. Austin TX- USA. 

2002

 1. Makkawi, Y. and Wright, P. C., Hydrodynamics in a conventional fluidized bed analyzed by electrical capacitance tomography.4th World Congress on Particles Technology, Sydney-Australia,20-25 July 2002.

2. Makkawi, Y. Wright, P. C. Meeyoo, V., Dechsiri, C., Zwan, E., Paans, A.M.J. and Hoffmann A.C., Observations on cross-sectional non-uniformity on fluidized beds using two different imaging techniques. 4th World Congress on Particles Technology, Sydney-Australia, 20-25 July 2002.

3. Makkawi, Y., Tomographic analysis of semi-wet bed fluidization. Particle Technology UK Forum IV. The University of Leeds, UK. 11-12 April 2002.

2001

1. Makkawi, Y. and Wright, P., Application of Process Tomography as a tool for better understanding of fluidization quality in fluidized beds, Proceedings of 2nd World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, Hanover, Germany, 28-31 August 2001. 

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