1. The Effect of Catchment Characteristics on Sewage
HEDGES P D and TYACK J N
The aim of this project was to develop a methodology to enable
sewage settling velocity grading curves to be determined from the
characteristics of the contributing catchment. Achieving this aim
involved the development of a column for determining the settling
velocity of sewer solids.
Tyack, J.N. (1996), 'The Effect of Catchment Characteristics on
Sewage settling Velocity Grading', PhD Thesis, Aston University.
2. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Chemical
Parameters and Sewage Settling Velocity Grading Curves
HEDGES P D and BECKER F A
If advances are to be made in the design of separation devices,
both to meet consent standards and to improve efficiencies, then
it will be necessary to move towards more scientific design
procedures than the "rule-of-thumb" approach currently
employed. The aim of this project was to determine whether the
individual chemical constituents of sewage are associated with
specific settling velocity fractions, and hence whether grading
curves can be used to improve the design of separation devices.
Becker, F.A. (1997), 'Chemical Constituents Associated with
Sewage Settling Velocity profiles, PhD Thesis, Aston University.
3. The Use of Remote Sensing for Monitoring Landfill Gas and
Leachate within an Urban Environment
HEDGES P D and ELLIS R J
To date the application of Remote Sensing techniques for
monitoring landfill sites in urban areas has been confined
primarily to the use of conventional aerial photography. This
project sought to evaluate the potential of both the high
resolution and the range of spectral bands available from the
Airborne Thematic Mapper, and the cheaper alternative, airborne
videography for this purpose. The intended outcome from this work
was the establishment of an economic methodology, using Remote
Sensing, which could be employed for rapidly surveying landfill
sites within a large urban area.
Ellis, R.J. (1997), 'Evaluation of Remote Sensing for Detection
of Landfill gas and Leachate in an Urban Environment', PhD Thesis,
4. Establishment of a Reedbed Within a Created Wetland
HEDGES P D and FERMOR P M
On site monitoring was used in this research to assist in the
devlopment of hydrological guidelines for the design, creation and
establishment of virgin wetland habitats with a particular focus
on reedbed ecosystems. The guidelines were based on experience
gained on the Teeside International Nature Reserve and the Cardiff
Bay Environmental Mitigation Measures project.
Fermor, P.M. (1997), 'Establishment of a Reedbed within a
Created Surface water Fed wetland Nature Reserve', PhD Thesis,
5. The Ecological Impact of Intermittent Industrial
Discharges on Streams
HEDGES P D and PISOLKAR E M
At the time this project commenced, compliance with the UK CIMAH
(Control of Industrial Major Accidental Hazard) legislation
requires that industry be able to identify the likely impact of an
accidental release of a chemical compound to the environment. In
order to do this, it is necessary to understand both the
environment that may be impacted and the ecotoxicological effect
on flora and fauna. The aim of this research proposal was directed
towards the achievement of these ends in relation to freshwater
streams by contributing to the understanding and prediction of the
impact of these discharges on freshwater macroinvertebrates.
Pisolkar, E.M. (1997), 'the Biological Monitoring of Impact and
Recovery in Streams Following Pollution Incidents', PhD Thesis,
6. The Integration of GIS and Hydrological Models to Assess
the Environmental Impact of Groundwater Pumping
HEDGES P D and CHARNOCK T
The overall aim of this project was to evaluate the potential for
integrating hydrological models with PC based Geographical
Information Systems (GIS) for assessing the impact of groundwater
pumping on the environment. The project built upon research into
the environmental impact of the Shropshire Groundwater Scheme
undertaken at Aston during the 1980s. The GIS was successfully
interfaced with a groundwater model, but the interface with a
crop-soil-water model was less so. The work employed a classified
remotely sensed satellite imagery as the land use data source.
Charnock, T.W. (1997), 'GIS Linked Environmental Process
Models', PhD Thesis, Aston University.
7. The Integrated Evaluation of Local and National Future
Water Resource Needs
HEDGES P D and CARNELL J
The water industry currently has no consistent or
integrated methodology for developing and utilising water resource
planning allowances. The inconsistency renders both funding by
OFWAT and resource development approval by the NRA cumbersome and
time consuming. This project aimed to produce an integrated
methodology for the determination of future water resource need.
This was achieved by assessing the full potential range of water
resource planning needs under the headings of: demand allowances;
resource allowances; source yield allowances; operational
allowances. Subsequently, the statistical distributions and
dependency of each allowance was investigated to determine how
best they could be combined together using risk assessment
Carnell, J (1999), 'Calculating the Balance Between Water
Resources and Water Demands an Approach Using Risk Analysis', PhD
Thesis, Aston University.
8. The Geometric Correction of Airborne Line-Scanner Imagery
HEDGES P D and GREGORY S
It is well recognised that rectification of airborne line-scanner
imagery based on the use of polynomial mapping functions does not
yield satisfactory results. A methodology has been developed for
identifying image disparities resulting from variations in
platform attitude by comparing a line-scanned image directly with
an aerial photograph of the corresponding region. In the absence
of platform ephemeris data this methodology can be utilised to
enable multi-temporal data sets to be corrected and registered.
Gregory, S. (2001), 'The Geometric Correction and Registration
of Airborne Line-Scanned Imagery for Temporal Thermal Studies',
PhD Thesis, Aston University.
9. Determining the Settling Velocity Profile of Sewer Solids
HEDGES P D
In recent years settling velocity has steadily grown in importance as
the parameter best representing the influence of gravity on sewer
solids, and a number of research groups have independently developed
equipment for measuring this parameter. However, it is clear from a
study of the available literature that different terms are employed by
researchers to describe various aspects of their work, and their
results are presented in a variety of ways. If the outcome of research
on the settling velocity of sewer solids is to be of value to other
researchers and practitioners working both in the field and in
modelling, there is a need for a comparison of these devices so that
confusion is avoided and the data collected is portable. This research
led to the production of an annex to:
See Appendix to Ashley, RM, Bertrand-Krajewski, JL,
Hvitved-Jacobsen T, and Verbank M (ED) (2004), Characteristics, Effects
and Control of Sewer Solids and Associated Pollutants, Scientific &
Technical Report No 14, International Water Association, IWA
10. The Water Use Rates of Diverse Habitats in Wetland Systems
HEDGES P D, READ K, AND FERMOR P
To create hydrologically sustainable wetlands, knowledge of the water
use requirements of target habitats must be known. Extensive literature
reviews highlighted a dearth of water-use data associated with large
reedbeds and wet woodland habitats and in response to this field
experiments were established.
Field experiments to measure the water use rates of large
reedbeds [ET(Reed)] were completed at three sites within the UK.
Reference Crop Evapotranspiration [ETo] was calculated and mean monthly
crop coefficients [Kc(Reed)] were developed. Kc(Reed) was less than 1
during the growing season (March to September), ranging between 0.22 in
March and reaching a peak of 0.98 in June. The developed coefficients
compare favourably with published data from other large reedbed systems
and support the premise that the water use of large reedbeds is lower
than that from small / fringe reedbeds.
A methodology for determining water use rates from wet
woodland habitats (UK NVC Code: W6) was developed, in addition to
establishing provisional ET(W6) rates for two sites in the UK.
Reference Crop Evapotranspiration [ETo] data was used to develop Kc(W6)
values which ranged between 0.89 and 1.64 for the period March to
September. The data are comparable with relevant published data and
show that the water use rates of wet woodland are higher than most
other wetland habitats. Initial observations suggest that water use is
related to the habitat’s establishment phase and the age and size of
the canopy tree species.
A theoretical case study presents crop coefficients associated
with wetland habitats and provides an example water budget for the
creation of a wetland comprising a mosaic of wetland habitats. The case
study shows the critical role that the water use of wetland habitats
plays within a water budget.
Read, K. (2003), ‘The Water Use Rates of Diverse Habitats in Wetland Systems’, PhD Thesis, Aston University.
11. Implementing Biodiversity Action Plans Within Environmental Management Systems
HEDGES P D, CALOW J, AND FERMOR P
of organizations have so far been accredited to Environmental
Management Standards such as ISO 14001 and EMAS and yet there are very
few examples of biodiversity issues being formally linked to certified
Environmental Management Systems (EMS). A review of current literature
highlighted a need to develop structured guidance setting out the
process organisations must take to formally incorporate Biodiversity
Action Plans (BAPs) into their EMSs. In addition, many authors were of
the opinion that certification bodies were somewhat lacking in
biodiversity expertise, and were therefore not pro-active in
appreciating biodiversity opportunities.
The aim of the research project was to develop a methodology
to enable companies to establish and implement BAPs within EMS,
particularly ISO 14001. Questionnaires were sent to 14 collaborating
organisations, to collect information on biodiversity issues associated
with each organisation, and the integration of biodiversity issues into
key stages of their EMS. This information was then used to produce flow
diagrams to illustrate how biodiversity could be incorporated into an
EMS, thus delivering a process to conserve and enhance biodiversity in
an organisational setting (organisational BAP).
A Biodiversity Benchmark was produced. This is a process,
distilled from key elements of best practice at the participating
organisations and supplemented by information gathered from workshops
and literature sources to develop a biodiversity management process.
This allows any organisation that adopts the Benchmark to protect and
enhance their biodiversity within a cycle of continuous improvement.
Calow, J. (pending), ‘Implementing Biodiversity Action Plans
Within Environmental Management Systems’, PhD Thesis, Aston University.