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Dr Jo Lumsden

Position

Senior Lecturer & Aston Interactive Media (AIM) Lab Manager

Phone Number

+44 (0)121 204 3470

Email

j.lumsden@aston.ac.uk

Room Number

MB211D

Jo Lumsden Photo


Profile

I joined the Computer Science department at Aston University as a lecturer and designer/manager of the Aston Interactive Media (AIM) Lab in June, 2009.  I am also an Adjunct Professor with the Faculty of Interdisciplinary Studies at the University of New Brunswick, Canada.  For almost 7 years prior to moving to Aston University, I worked as a Research Officer with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) where I designed and managed a state-of-the-art mobile human computer interaction evaluation lab within the NRC facility.

I obtained a B.Sc. (Hons) in Software Engineering from Glasgow University in 1996, from where I also later graduated with a Ph.D. in HCI in 2001.  Both during and subsequent to my Ph.D. term, I worked as a research assistant within the Department of Computer Science at Glasgow University.

Qualifications & Education

  • B.Sc. with First Class Honours in Software Engineering, Glasgow University, Scotland, 1996

  • Ph.D. in Human Computer Interaction, Glasgow University, Scotland, 2001

  • Diploma in University Teaching, University of New Brunswick, Canada, 2006

Employment

  • 2012 – current: Senior Lecturer and Aston Interactive Media (AIM) Lab Manager, School of Engineering & Applied Science, Aston University

  • 2009 – 2012: Lecturer and Aston Interactive Media (AIM) Lab Manager, School of Engineering & Applied Science, Aston University

  • 2002 – 2009: Research Officer and Mobile HCI Lab Manager, National Research Council of Canada

  • 1996 – 2002: Research Assistant, Department of Computer Science, Glasgow University

Current Teaching Activity

  • CS2260: Human Computer Interaction (10-credit, second-year module)

  • CS2030: Second Year Multimedia (MC2) Group Project (assist on 20-credit, second-year module)

  • CS3040: Mobile Design & Development (20-credit, final-year module)

  • CS4040: Mobile Design & Development (15-credit, MSc module commencing 2014/15)

  • CS3410: Interaction Design (10-credit, final-year module)

  • CS4650: Interaction Design (15-credit, MSc module)

  • CS4655: Advanced HCI (15-credit, MSc module)

  • GGE6800: User Centred Design (PhD module, University of New Brunswick)

Research Interests

My research activities cover many aspects of human computer interaction.  Most recently I have been focusing on trust in e-Commerce and on mobile human computer interaction design and associated evaluation techniques.  I have a keen interest in using mobile technologies in novel capacities (e.g., as assistive devices) and in designing novel interaction techniques for mobile technologies.  I have an ongoing research interest in audio feedback design and how we can use audio feedback to enhance or completely replace visual-based I/O, especially in non-standard contexts of use (e.g., motor racing).  I have an interest in decision support systems.  I am an academic supervisor within the Aston Formula Student team at Aston University, where I happily combine my love of motor sport and research interests. The majority of my research is multi-disciplinary in nature, representing collaborations across many different domains including pharmacy, ophthalmology, GIS, and geodesy and geomatics.

Current Ph.D. Supervision

  • Victoria Lush: Visualisation of Quality Information for GIS Data (associate supervisor, Lucy Bastin)
  • Lilit Hakobyan: Self-Monitoring, Ability-Reactive Technology for Age-Related Macular Degeneration (associate supervisors Dympna O’Sullivan & Rachel Shaw (LHS))
  • Nicholas Powell: Performance-Based Audio Feedback for Accelerated Skills Acquisition in Motorsport/Driver Training (associate supervisor, Harry Goldingay)

  • Kimrendeep Basi: Self-Monitoring Mobile Technology for Medication Adherence in Elderly People with Dementia (co-supervisor, Ian Maidment (LHS))

  • Semui Salawu: Detection and Prevention of Cyberbullying on Online Social Networks (co-supervisor, Yulan He)

  • Maria Dolores Arteaga Revert: Big Data Analytics (supervisory committee member, University of New Brunswick)

Graduated Ph.D. Students

  • Will Plant (2013): Effective Search for Colour Images [Aston University, UK]

  • Linda Duffett-Leger (2011): Developing a Web-Based Approach for Promoting Cervical Health in Young Women [University of New Brunswick, Canada]

I am always interested to hear from well-qualified students who are dedicated to pursuing a Ph.D. in a research area aligned with my interests.  Students with strong backgrounds in computer science, human-computer interaction, and/or psychology and who have empathy with users and excellent communication skills are encouraged to contact me.  In particular, I would be very keen to hear from prospective students or post-docs who have an interest in all aspects of research associated with the design, delivery, and evaluation of mobile assistive technologies.

Current Externally-Funded Research Projects

Aside from foundational-level research and that which is funded via PhD studentships (see above), I am currently engaged in a number of externally-funded projects.

  • Touch Digital: Touch Digital is an ERDF-funded project in partnership with Coventry University Enterprises Ltd.  The goal of the project is to contribute to innovation and regeneration across the West Midlands region by providing research and development support in the area of human interactiveto SMEs via no-cost business assists.  For more information about the project or to enquire about or apply for a business assist, visit the official project website www.touchdigital.eu.
  • GeoViQua - QUAlity aware VIsualisation for the Global Earth Observation system of systems: GeoViQua is an FP7 focused on adding rigorous quality specifications to the Global Earth Observations System of Systems (GEOSS).  Have led the HCI-related research associated with user-centred design and development of a GEO label to represent availability of dataset metadata according to key facets of information.  More about the project can be found at the official project website www.geoviqua.org.
  • Multiple Source Decision Making: this Ministry of Defence DHCSTC-funded project is a collaboration between Aston University and Daden Ltd. It aims to examine methods and tools to assist in the integration and visualisation of multiple sources of information so as to support more effective decision-making by military personnel.  The "lens" through which we are approaching this is that of 3D immersive visualistion environments.
  • Making Bid Data Exploration Work: Traceability & Usability: this TSB-funded project is a collaboration between Aston University, IGI Ltd., and Daden Ltd.  The project aims to develop prototype tools to support extraction of valuable information from big data where the prototypes will (a) maximise the efficiency of data import, cleansing and annotation, (b) integrate novel 2D and 3D visualisation methods ensuring fidelity, and (c) maximise usability and capture workflows and interpretations for the exploration of big data in a generic manner which can be readily customised to specific applications.
  • ALIVE - Aston Laboratory for Immersive Virtual Environments: this project aims to develop a state-of-the art research environment to support interdisciplinary and innovative research.  In progress, this project has already received infrastructure support from the Wolfson Trust.

Member of Professional Bodies

  • Member of the British Computer Society 

External Responsibilities/Engagement

  • Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Mobile HCI (IJMHCI)the only journal dedicated to the design and evaluation of the user interface aspects of mobile technologies

  • Reviewer for NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada)

Selected Publications (2000 - current)

Please note: research papers submitted and/or published prior to 2001 were published under maiden name of McKirdy

Book Editor

  • Handbook of Research on User Interface Design and Evaluation for Mobile Technology Human-Computer, IGI Global, Hershey, USA

  • Human-Computer Interaction and Innovation in Handheld, Mobile and Wearable Technologies, IGI Global, Hershey, USA

  • Social and Organizational Impacts of Emerging Mobile Devices: Evaluating Use, IGI Global, Hershey, USA

  • Developments in Technologys for Human-Centric Mobile Computing Applications, IGI Global, Hershey, USA

Peer Reviewed Conference Publications

  • Hakobyan L., Lumsden, J., O'Sullivan, D., & Bartlett, H., (2013), Designing a Mobile Diet Diary Application with and for Older Adults with AMD: A Case Study, in Proceedings of BCS-HCI '13, London, UK, Sept 9-13.

  • Hakobyan L., Lumsden, J., & O'Sullivan, D., (2013), PICTIVE Participatory Design Process with Older Adults with AMD. In proceedings of iHCI '13, Dundalk, Ireland, June 12-13.

  • Lush, V., Bastin, L., Lumsden, J., (2013), Developing a GEO Label: Providing the GIS Community with Quality Metadata Visualisation Tools, In Proceedings of the 21 st GIS Research UK (GISRUK 3013), Liverpool, UK, 3 - 5 April 2013

  • Lush, V., Lumsden, J., & Bastin, L., (2013), GEO Label – Quality Information Interrogation Tool for Geospatial Datasets: Towards Effective Visualization of Quality Metadata, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 15, EGU2013-3559, EGU General Assembly

  • Hakobyan, L., Lumsden, J., O'Sullivan, D. & Bartlett, H., (2012), Understanding the IT-Related Attitudes and Needs of Persons with Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Case Study, in Proceedings of BCS-HCI 2012 - People and Computers XXVI, London, UK, Sept 12-14, 239-244.

  • Lush, V., Lumsden, J., Masó, J., Díaz, P., & McCallum, I., (2012), GEO Label: User and Producer Perspectives on a Label for Geospatial Data, EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts

  • Munteanu, C., Molyneaux, H., Maitland, J., McDonald, D., Leung, R., Lumsden, J., & Fournier, H., (2012), Tale of Two Studies: Challenges in Field Research with Low-Literacy Adult Learners in a Developed Country, in Proceedings of CHI'12 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, May 5–10, 2012, Austin, Texas, USA, 489-504

  • Lush, V., Bastin, L. & Lumsden, J., (2012), Geospatial Data Quality Indicators, in Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Spatial Accuracy Assessment in Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences. Vieira, C., Bogorny, V. & Aquino, A.R. (eds.). International Spatial Accuracy Research Association, 121-126

  • Plant, W., Lumsden, J., & Nabney, I.T., (2011), The Mosaic Test: Benchmarking Colour-based Image Retrieval Systems Using Image Mosaics, in Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Information Retrieval (EuroHCIR), Newcastle, UK, 4 July, Online proceedings (http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-763/), 23-26

  • Munteanu, C., Molyneaux, H., McDonald, D., Lumsden, J., Leung, R., Fournier, H., and Maitland., J., (2011), “Showing Off” Your Mobile Device: Adult Literacy Learning in the Classroom and Beyond, to in the Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Service (MobileHCI’2011), Aug. 30 – Sept. 2nd, Stockholm, Sweden

  • Lumsden, J., Langton, N., and Kondratova, I., (2010), Bringing the High Seas into the Lab to Evaluate Speech Input Feasibility: A Case Study, in SiMPE – 5th Workshop on Speech in Mobile and Pervasive Environments (part of ACM MobileHCI’2010), Lisbon, Portugal, 7 Sept.

  • Munteanu, C., Lumsden, J., Fournier, H., Leung, R., D'Amours, D., McDonald, D., & Maitland, J., (2010), ALEX - Supporting Low-Literacy Adults Through Mobile Computing, in Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'2010) Workshop on Design to Read, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 10-15 April

  • Munteanu, C., Lumsden, J., Fournier, H., Leung, R., D'Amours, D., McDonald, D., & Maitland, J., (2010), ALEX: Mobile Language Assistant for Low-Literacy Adults, in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services (MobileHCI'10), September 7–10, Lisbon, Portugal

  • Duffett-Leger, D., and Lumsden, J., (2010), An Argument for Using Participatory Approaches for the Design of Online Health Interventions Targetted at Young Women, in Proceedings of the BCS Health Conference 2010 (HC2010), Birmingham, UK, April 27-29

  • Lumsden, J., (2009), Triggering Trust: To What Extent Does the Question Influence the Answer When Evaluating the Perceived Importance of Trust Triggers?, in Proceedings of BCS-HCI 2009 (BCS HCI'09), Cambridge, UK, 1-5 Sept., 214-223

  • Lumsden, J., & Durling, S., (2008), Speech Recognition Use in Healthcare Applications, in Proceedings of the 6th International ACM Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing and Multimedia, 24-26 November, Linz, Austria, 473-478

  • Lumsden, J., and MacLean, R., (2008), A Comparison of Pseudo-Paper and Paper Prototyping Methods for Mobile Evaluations, in Proceedings of the On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems: OTM 2008 Workshops, 9-14 November, Monterrey, Mexico, 538-547

  • Lumsden, J., Durling, S., & Kondratova, I., (2008), A Comparison of Microphone and Speech Recognition Engine Efficacy for Mobile Data Entry, in Proceedings of the On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems: OTM 2008 Workshops, 9-14 November, Monterrey, Mexico, 519-527

  • Lumsden, J., & Drost, P., (2008), A Comparison of the Impact of Avoidance Cues in Hazard Avoidance During Evaluation of Text Entry, in Proceedings of the BCS-HCI (BCS HCI'08), Liverpool, UK, 1-5 Sept., Vol. II: pp. 57-60

  • Lumsden, J., Langton, N., & Kondratova, I., (2008), Evaluating the Appropriateness of Speech Input in Marine Applications: A Field Evaluation, in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Mobile HCI (Mobile HCI'08), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2-5 Sept., pp. 343-346

  • Duffett-Leger, D., and Lumsden, J., (2008), InteractiveOnline Health Promotion Interventions: A "Health Check", in Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE Symposium on Technology and Society (ISTAS'08), Fredericton, Canada, June 26-28

  • Lumsden, J., Kondratova, I., and Durling, S., (2007), Investigating Microphone Efficacy for Facilitation of Mobile Speech-Based Data Entry, in Proceedings of the BCS-HCI'2007 Conference, Lancaster, UK, 3-7 Sept, pp. 89-98. Was awarded conference’s Best Paper Award.

  • Crease, M., Lumsden, J., and Longworth, B., (2007), A Technique for Incorporating Dynamic Paths in Lab-Based Mobile Evaluations, in Proceedings of the BCS-HCI'2007 Conference, Lancaster, UK, 3-7 Sept, pp. 99-108

  • Cooper, A. and Lumsden, J. (2007), Would the Best Candidate Please Step Forward: Reflections on the Pros and Cons of Different Support Mechanisms for Online-Questionnaire Design, in Proceedings of the 18th Annual International Conference of the Information Resources Management Association (IRMA'2007), Vancouver, Canada, 18-23 May, pp. 127-131. Was awarded conference’s Best Paper Award.

  • Lumsden, J., Kondratova, I., and Langton, N., (2006), Bringing A Construction Site Into The Lab: A Context-Relevant Lab-Based Evaluation Of A Multimodal Mobile Application, in Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Multimodal and Pervasive Services (MAPS'2006), 62 - 68, 29 June, Lyon, France

  • Lumsden, J. and MacKay, L., (2006), How Does Personality Affect Trust in B2C e-Commerce, in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Electronic Commerce (ICEC'2006), 14 - 16 August, Fredericton, Canada, pp. 471-481

  • Leung, R., Lumsden, J., and Fritz, J., (2006), Accommodating Special Needs Users in the Evaluation of an m-Learning Application: A Case Study, in Proceedings of the IADIS Mobile Learning 2006 Conference, Dublin, 14 - 16 July, pp. 177-184

  • Kondratova, I., Lumsden J., and Langton, N., (2006), Multimodal Field Data Entry: Performance and Usability Issues, in Proceedings of the Joint International Conference on Computing and Decision Making in Civil and Building Engineering, Montreal, Canada, June 14-16

  • Flinn, S., and Lumsden, J., (2005), User Perceptions of Privacy and Security on the Web, in Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST 2005), St. Andrews, New Brunswick, Canada, October 12-14, pp. 15-26

  • Lumsden, J., Flinn, S., Anderson, M., and Morgan, W., (2005), What Difference do Guidelines Make? An Observational Study of Online-Questionnaire Design Guidelines Put to Practical Use, in Proceedings of BCS-HCI 2005 - People and Computers XIX, 5th - 9th September 2005, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, pp. 69 – 83

  • Lumsden, J., Leung, R., and Fritz, J., (2005), Designing a Mobile Transcriber Application for Adult Literacy Education: A Case Study, in Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference on Mobile Learning 2005, 28th - 30th June, Qawra, Malta, pp. 16 – 23

  • Lumsden, J. and W. Morgan (2005), Online-Questionnaire Design: Establishing Guidelines and Evaluating Existing Support, in Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference of the Information Resources Management Association (IRMA'2005), San Diego, California, USA, 15-18 May, pp. 407 – 410

  • Lumsden, J., & Gammell, A., (2004), Mobile Note Taking: Investigating the Efficacy of Mobile Text Entry, in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services (Mobile HCI’2004), 13-16 Sept., Glasgow, Scotland, pp. 156 – 167

  • Lumsden, J. (2004). Evaluating the Evaluator: Modelling Systematic Data Analysis Strategies for Software Selection. In Proceedings of the 2004 Information Resources Management Association Conference - IRMA'2004, 23rd - 26th May, New Orleans, USA, pp. 97 – 100

  • Brewster, S. A., Lumsden, J., Bell, M., Hall, M., & Tasker, S. (2003), Multimodal 'Eyes-Free' Interaction Techniques for Mobile Devices. In Proceedings of the Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference - CHI'2003, April 5 - 10, Ft Lauderdale, USA, pp. 473 – 480

  • Lumsden, J., & Brewster, S. (2003), A Paradigm Shift: Alternative Interaction Techniques for Use With Mobile & Wearable Devices. In Proceedings of the 13th Annual IBM Centers for Advanced Studies Conference CASCON'2003, 6th - 9th October, Toronto, Canada, pp. 97 - 110 Was awarded conference’s Best Paper Award. Awarded Most Influential Paper Award a decade later in CASCON’2013.

  • O'Reilly, T., Waugh, L., Kondratova, I., & Lumsden, J. (2003). Categorically Speaking: Reflecting AEC/FM Participants' Requirements in Groupware. In Proceedings of the 5th Construction Speciality Conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering (CSCE'2003), 4 - 7 June, Moncton, N.B., Canada.

  • Lumsden, J., (2002), Selecting the 'Invisible' User Interface Development Tool, Proceedings of People and Computers XVI – Memorable Yet Invisible: Human Computer Interaction 2002 (BCS- HCI'2002), 4th - 6th Sept., London, U.K., pp. 365 – 380

  • Lumsden, J., Brewster, S.A., Crease, M., & Gray, P.D, (2002), Guidelines for Audio-Enhancement of Graphical User Interface Widgets, Proceedings of People and Computers XVI – Memorable Yet Invisible: Human Computer Interaction 2002 (BCS-HCI'2002), 4th - 6th Sept., London

  • Cooper, R., McKirdy, J., Griffiths, T., Barclay, P., Paton, N., Gray, P., Kennedy, J., Goble, C., (2000), Conceptual Modelling for Database User Interfaces, in Advances in Visual Information Management, Proceedings of Visual Database Systems, Hiroshi Arisawa and Tiziana Catarci (eds), Fukuoka, Japan, May 2000, pp. 117 – 128

  • Lumsden , J., & Gray, P., (2000), SUIT - Context Sensitive Evaluation of User Interface Development Tools, in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) Interactive Systems Design, Specification and Verification Revised Papers, (Palanque, P., and Paterno, F., Eds), 7th International Workshop, DSV-IS 2000, Limerick, Ireland, June 2000

Journal Publications

  • Hakobyan, L., Lumsden, J., & O’Sullivan, D. (accepted: in press), Older Adults with AMD as Co-Designers of an Assistive Mobile Application, to appear in International Journal of Mobile Human Computer Interaction (IJMHCI)

  • Yang, K., Blower, J. , Bastin, L., Lush, V. , Zabala, A. , Maso, J., Cornford, D., Diaz, P. & Lumsden, J., (2013), An Integrated View of Data Quality in Earth Observation, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 371(1983:Open Access).

  • Munteanu, C., Molyneaux, H., Maitland, J., McDonald, D., Fournier, H., Leung, R. & Lumsden, J., (2013), Hidden in Plain Sight: Low-Literacy Adults in a Developed Country Overcoming Social and Educational Challenges Through Mobile Learning Support Tools, Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 1-5 (online access).

  • Plant, W., Lumsden, J., & Nabney, I.T., (2012), The Mosaic Test: Measuring the Effectiveness of Colour-Based Image Retrieval, Multimedia Tools and Applications, Springer, Online First™, 1-22

  • Lumsden, J., Leung, R., D'Amours, D., and McDonald, D., (2010), ALEX©: A Mobile Adult Literacy Experiential Learning Application, in International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organization (IJMLO) Special Issue on Mobile and Ubiquitous Technologies for Language Learning, 4(2), 172-19

  • Barclay, P.J., Griffiths, T., McKirdy, J., Kennedy, J., Cooper, R., Paton, N.W., & Gray, P., (2003), Teallach - a Flexible User-Interface Development Environment for Object Database Applications, Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, 14(1), Elsevier Science, pp. 47-77

  • Griffiths, T., Barclay, P.J., Paton, N.W., McKirdy, J., Kennedy, J., Gray, P.D., Cooper, R., Goble, C.A., and Pinherio da Silva, P., (2001), Teallach - a Model-Based User Interface Development Environment for Object Databases, Interacting With Computers, 14(1), 31-68

Book Chapters

  • Lumsden, J., (2008), A Method for Systematic Artifact Selection Decision Making, in the Encyclopedia of Decision Making and Decision Support Technologies, Ed. F. Adam and P. Humphreys, IGI Global, Hershey, USA, pp. 618-627

  • Lumsden, J., (2008), Design & Evaluation for the Future of m-Interaction, in Encyclopedia of Multimedia Technology and Networking (2nd Edition), Ed. M. Pagani, Idea Group Inc., Hershey, USA, pp. 332-340Leung, R., and Lumsden, J., (2008), Designing Mobile Technologies for Individuals With Disabilities, in Lumsden, J. (Ed) Handbook of Research on User Interface Design and Evaluation for Mobile Technology, Information Science Reference, Hershey, USA, pp. 609-623

  • Crease, M., and Lumsden, J., (2008), Did You See That? in Lumsden, J. (Ed) Handbook of Research on User Interface Design and Evaluation for Mobile Technology, Information Science Reference, Hershey, USA, pp.972-981

  • Lumsden, J., (2006), Guidelines For Online Questionnaire Design, in the Handbook of Research on Electronic Surveys and Measurements, Ed. R. Reynolds, R. Woods, & J.D. Baker, Idea Group Inc., Hershey, USA, pp. 44 - 64 (pg. 378)

  • Lumsden, J., (2005), The Future of m-Interaction, in the Encyclopedia of Multimedia Technology and Networking, Ed. M. Pagani, Idea Group Inc., Hershey, USA., pp. 342 – 347

 Technical Reports

  • Lumsden, J., (2005), Guidelines for the Design of Online-Questionnaires, NRC Technical Report #NRC 48231, June 8th 2005

  • Lumsden, J. (2004), The AudioPhys Project - Phase 1: Final Report, TR # NRC 47435/ERB-1120, December 20, pp. 37

  • Lumsden, J., and Brewster, S.A., (2001), A Survey of Audio-Related Knowledge Amongst Software Engineers Developing Human-Computer Interfaces, Department of Computing Science Technical Report TR-2001-97, September, Glasgow University

  • Lumsden, J., Williamson, J., and Brewster, S.A., (2001), Enhancing Textfield Interaction With The Use Of Sound, Department of Computing Science Technical Report TR-2001-99, October, Glasgow University

  • Lumsden, J., Wu, A., and Brewster, S.A., (2001), Evaluating the Combined Use of Audio Toolkit Widgets, Department of Computing Science Technical Report TR-2001-101, October, Glasgow University

  • Lumsden, J., and Brewster, S.A., (2001), Guidelines For Using the Toolkit of Sonically-Enhanced Widgets, Department of Computing Science Technical Report TR-2001-100, October, Glasgow University

Employable Graduates; Exploitable Research