Center for Quantum Devices, EECS Department, Northwestern University, USA
Title: Developing Better Light Sources with Band Structure Engineering
Abstract: A tremendous amount of effort has gone into the development of semiconductor lasers. From the simple homojunction laser, scientists have found ways to isolate and optimize different aspects of laser design. Near infrared lasers now can demonstrate greater than 70% power conversion efficiency, thanks to an increasing proficiency in material growth and the appropriate use of heterojunctions and quantum size effects.
At longer wavelengths (3-300 mm), there are a number of potentially portable applications that are well understood but lack a suitable compact light source with the power , versatility, and/or output power that is desired. Remote chemical sensing via infrared absorption spectroscopy is a primary goal of many agencies as it allows detection of hazardous or weaponized chemicals at a safe distance. The same chemical affinity could also be used to target certain proteins or tissues for surgical applications. For some bands in this wavelength range, we can leverage atmospheric transmission windows for free-space communications, which may bring more reliable internet connectivity to places hard to access with fiber optics. Finally, a high power, narrow linewidth source is also useful for heterodyne/homodyne detection, which can detect very weak signals in the presence of strong background.
Rapid device evolution is now occurring for longer wavelength lasers as well. Lasers based on intersubband transitions, such as the quantum cascade laser (QCL), are being developed to help access all these applications. The general goal is to achieve room temperature, efficient operation with an ever increasing versatility. In this talk, I will explain how intrinsic physical limitations can be overcome by band structure engineering, advanced device design, and by pushing the boundaries of semiconductor growth technology. Specific topics to be highlighted include the engineering of broadband gain media, output power scaling, widely tunable lasers, room temperature THz emitters, and monolithic mid-infrared frequency combs.
About Prof. Razeghi
Manijeh Razeghi received the Doctorat d'État es Sciences Physiques from the Université de Paris, France, in 1980.
After heading the Exploratory Materials Lab at Thomson-CSF (France), she joined Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, as a Walter P. Murphy Professor and Director of the Center for Quantum Devices in Fall 1991, where she created the undergraduate and graduate program in solid-state engineering. She is one of the leading scientists in the field of semiconductor science and technology, pioneering in the development and implementation of major modern epitaxial techniques such as MOCVD, VPE, gas MBE, and MOMBE for the growth of entire compositional ranges of III-V compound semiconductors. She is on the editorial board of many journals such as Journal of Nanotechnology, and Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, an Associate Editor of Opto-Electronics Review.
Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Nanotechnology Department, Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover, Germany
Title - 3D Nanoengineering and Laser Printing
Abstract - I will report on our progress in the development of laser-based nanotechnologies for applica-tions in photonics and medicine. Fabrication of 3D nanostructured objects by two-photon polymerization (2PP) of photosensitive materials, generation of microstructures and nano-particles by laser ablation, direct laser printing of nanoparticle arrays and living cells will be discussed. Applications of these techniques for the realization of photonic and plasmonic components, sensors, biomedical implants, and tissue engineering constructs will be demonstrated.
About Prof. Dr. Chichkov Born in Russia in 1955. Study of Physics at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) (Moscow), PhD in Physics obtained from the MIPT and the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1981. From 1981 to 1995, scientific employee at the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow. In addition also assistant professor at the MIPT from 1987 to 1988. Professor Chichkov joined the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) in 1995 and was a scientific employee until 1997. In 1997, he completed his habilitation at the University of Hannover (now: Leibniz Universität Hannover). From 1997 to 2000, associate professor at the Institute for Quantum Optics (IQ), University of Hannover. From 2001 to 2004, Head of the Strategy Group of the LZH. Since 2004, Professor Chichkov is Head of the Nanotechnology Department at the LZH and he obtained a W3 professorship for Nanoengineering at the IQ of the University of Hannover in 2009.
Main Research Areas
Vice Dean (Research) for the Faculty of Natural Sciences, Professor of Physics and former Head of the Photonics Group at Imperial College London. Prof. Paul French has also worked at the University of New Mexico and AT&T Bell Laboratories. His research has evolved from ultrafast dye and solid-state laser physics to biomedical optics with a particular emphasis on FLIM for applications in molecular cell biology, drug discovery and clinical diagnosis.
Title: Fluorescence lifetime imaging for high content analysis - from automated microscopy to tomography and endoscopy
Abstract Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) can be utilised in high content analysis (HCA) and for preclinical imaging to contrast different molecular species, including fluorophore labels or endogenous autofluorescence that provide label-free readouts, or it can map variations in the local molecular environment of fluorophores. The latter capability may be exploited using probes sensitive to specific analytes, such as calcium or other signalling molecules, or it may be used to probe interactions by sensing the close proximity of other fluorophores via Forster resonant energy transfer (FRET). FLIM is increasingly applied to labelled cells to study signalling networks and mechanisms of disease and to autofluorescence of tissue to provide information about cellular metabolites or tissue matrix components. Because of their inherently ratiometric nature with the ability to use only a single spectral channel, FLIM readouts are independent of the optical properties of sample and instrument and so can be readily translated from cell microscopy and high content analysis to preclinical and clinical applications.
We are developing a FLIM technology platform that ranges from high-speed FLIM HCA for assays of protein interactions, e.g. via FRET, in automated optically sectioned multiwell plate readers to in vivo studies using multiphoton multispectral FLIM tomography and endoscopy. For cell-based assays we are developing automated FLIM plate readers and associated software tools, which we are applying to FRET assays using fluorescent protein-based biosensors, and to label-free readouts of changes in cellular metabolism. To translate assays to live disease models we are developing optical projection tomography with FLIM, particularly applied to zebrafish, and FLIM endoscopy, including a confocal FLIM endomicroscope and compact wide-field FLIM endoscopes. For clinical studies these FLIM endoscopes are complemented by single point fibre-optic probes for time-resolved and spectrally resolved fluorometry and multiphoton multispectral FLIM tomography.
Head, Distinguished Professor (level E3), Australian Federation Fellow, Nonlinear Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
Title: Recent advances in optical metamaterials
Abstract: Recent developments in the physics of metamaterials led to a birth of a new branch of nanophotonics dealing with optically-induced magnetic response of high-index dielectric nanoparticles rather than metallic nanoparticles employed in plasmonics. Unique advantages of dielectric nanostructures over plasmonic structures are their low dissipative losses that provide new and competitive alternatives for nanoantennas and optical metamaterials. This talk will review this new, rapidly developing field of nanophotonics and discuss interesting physical effects ranging from ”magnetic light” and engineering of magnetic response to magnetic Fano resonances all-dielectric metasurfaces and multimodal harmonic generation.
About Prof. Kivshar Yuri S. Kivshar received a PhD degree in theoretical physics in 1984 from the Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering (Kharkov, Ukraine). From 1988 to 1993 he worked at different research centers in USA, France, Spain, and Germany, and in 1993 he moved to Australia where later he established Nonlinear Physics Center at the Australian National University being currently Head of the Center and Distinguished Professor. His research interests include nonlinear photonics, optical solitons, nanophotonics, and metamaterials. He is Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science, the Optical Society of America, the American Physical Society, the Institute of Physics (UK), as well as Deputy Director of the Center of Excellence for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems CUDOS (Australia) and Research Director of Metamaterial Laboratory (Russia). He received many prestigious awards including the Lyle Medal (Australia), the State Prize in Science and Technology (Ukraine), and the Harrie Massey Medal of the Institute of Physics (UK)
Optoelectronics Research Centre, Southampton,UK
Title – Lighting up the world
The great success of optical fibres in telecommunications has generated numerous applications in a number of related fields, such as sensing, biophotonics and high-power lasers. The topic remains extraordinarily buoyant and new materials, structure and applications emerge unabated. The talk will review recent developments and explore future possibilities.
Following in the footsteps of Marconi and the revolution of wireless, the internet is perhaps the most important and life-changing invention of the 20th century. It too required the invention of a new global communication medium capable of carrying vast quantities of information across trans-oceanic distances, reliably, cheaply and efficiently. This turned out to be the unpredictable, unlikely and extraordinary role of optical fibres made from the two most common elements of the earth’s crust, silicon and oxygen (silica).
In recognition of the huge impact of his invention, Charles Kao was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2009, while Charles Townes, who provided the laser, was similarly honoured in 1964.
As with all new and disruptive concepts, the optical internet has proven a rich source of innovation, from the optical amplifier that compensates for losses in long spans of fibre, through new forms of digital communications appropriate to light as a carrier, to new materials and lasers. Perhaps even to quantum technologies for the future.
But is the innovation over? The demand for capacity continues unabated, fueled by demand for faster connections and a new age of creativity at home – You Tube, Twitter, Facebook – as well as an insatiable demand for high quality videos. You Tube alone consumes more bandwidth today than the entire internet in year 2000 and projections show that a capacity crunch looms in both the internet optical backbone and the wireless final drop in the next decade or so. Yet we are still on the first hardware iteration of the optical infrastructure, so is there an internet 2.0?
Incredibly, the same fibres that carry tiny internet signals when doped with rare-earths can generate more than 10 kilowatts of power, sufficient to cut through inch-thick steel. But is that where it ends?
For the first time, we have in the optical fibre a low-cost gain medium that can be produced in lengths of hundreds of kilometers. By analogy with the internet, this leads to the radical concept of fibre laser circuits consisting of thousands of lasing strands combined together into a single, controllable beam of immense power.
The exquisite control of the laser offered by the fibre environment makes coherent beam combination a possibility for very large numbers of fibre amplifiers fed from a common seed laser, perhaps to power levels in the megawatt regime. Coherent combination in a phased-array configuration rather like a radarantenna with active phase control of the individual beams allows control of the spatial beam profile, as well as a degree of beam steering. We are investigating the possibility of using coherently-combined femtosecond fibre sources to drive Wakefield accelerators for particle colliders in an initiative led by G. Mourou and T. Tajima. The high average powers required makes the high efficiency of fibres a necessity. Although many thousands, perhaps millions, of fibre channels will have to be combined, the manufacturability, scalability and reliability of active fibre technology makes this a realistic proposition overthe next few decades.
Whether by beam combination or the intrinsic control and flexibility of an individual laser, high-power fibre sources are truly revolutionary in the performance they offer and the applications they enable in science and industry.
About Prof. Payne
Prof Sir David Payne received his BSc, MSc and PhD from the University of Southampton (1963-1974)where he is currentlyProfessor of Photonics and Director of the Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC) and the Zepler Institute. He has published over 650 Conference and Journal papers and is co-inventor on over 40 patents.
Over the last forty years, he has made numerous key contributions in optical fibre communications and laser technology. His work in fibre fabrication in the 1970s resulted in most of the special fibres used today, including the revolutionary erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) and kilowatt-class fibre lasers for manufacturing and defence. He has received the UK Rank Prize for Optics, the 2001 Mountbatten Medal, the 2004 Kelvin Medal for the application of science to engineering, the 2007 IEEE Photonics Award, the 1991 IEEE/LEOS Tyndall Award, the 1998 Benjamin Franklin Medal for Engineering, and is Laureate of the 2008 Millennium Technology Prize. He is also an Eduard Rhein Laureate and a foreign member of the Norwegian and the Russian Academies of Sciences. He is a Fellow of the UK Royal Society, the UK Royal Academy of Engineering, the Optical Society of America, the UK IET and the UK IoP. As an entrepreneur, he co-founded York Technologies, (now PK Technology Inc.), Fibercore, SENSA (now part of Schlumberger) and SPI Lasers plc (now part of the Trumpf Gruppe). David was knighted in the 2013 New Year’s Honours List for services to Photonics Research and Applications. He was the 2014 IEEE/RSE Wolfson James Clerk Maxwell Awardee.
Electrical Engineering Division, University of Cambridge,UK. Master of Sidney Sussex College and Professor of Photonics, Centre for Photonic Systems, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge
Title – TBA
About Prof. Penty Richard Penty's first foray into the world of optical communications was via a sponsorship with the National Coal Board for whom he designed a 1Mb/s optical line card. He graduated from the University of Cambridge with a degree in Engineering and Electrical Sciences in 1986 and a PhD for research into nonlinear optical fibre devices in 1990. Richard was then an SERC IT research fellow at Cambridge until taking up a lectureship in physics at the University of Bath in 1990. In 1996 he moved to the University of Bristol as a lecturer in electrical and electronic engineering subsequently being promoted to Reader and Professor of Photonics. In 2001 he moved to the Cambridge University Engineering Department and was elected to a fellowship of Sidney Sussex College in 2002. Here he has served as Graduate Tutor, Vice Master and Acting Master.
Richard's research interests include photonic integration, optical data communications, MMF systems (digital and analogue), high-speed optical communications systems, wavelength conversion and WDM networks, optical amplifiers, distributing sensing using RFID, RF over fibre and high power semiconductor lasers.
Richard is the co-author of in excess of 700 refereed papers and receives many invitations to speak at conferences. He is the Programme Director of the Centre for Doctoral Training in Photonic Systems Development. He is a founder of Zinwave, PervasID and EComm. He is the Editor-in-Chief of the IET Optoelectronics journal. In 2012 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering.
Hooke Professor of Experimental physics and Pro-Vice Chancellor (Research), Department of Physics, University of Oxford
Title – Building large quantum states out of light
Complex quantum systems reveal new physical phenomena that cannot be studied using classical simulation. Integrated photonics provides as effective means to engineer such systems even largely in ambient conditions. These systems will provide opportunities for exploring a rich regime of multi-particle correlations, and have direct application to quantum simulation and measurement.
About Prof. Walmsley Ian Walmsley is Hooke Professor of Experimental Physics and Professorial Fellow of St Hugh’s College, and Pro-Vice-Chancellor (Research, Academic services and Collections), University of Oxford. Prior to being appointed Pro-Vice-Chancellor (Research) in February 2009, he was Head of Atomic and Laser Physics at Oxford, and served as Director of the Institute of Optics at the University of Rochester in the US. In 2011 he also took on responsibility for Academic Services and University Collections. His research is in the areas of ultrafast optics and quantum optics. He is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America, the American Physical Society, and the UK Institute of Physics, as well as a Science Delegate for Oxford University Press and a member of the Board of Directors of Isis Innovation. In April 2012 he was elected to the Fellowship of the Royal Society.
Group leader Centre for Innovation Competence Diamond-/carbon-based optical systems, Institute of Applied Physics, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany.
Title – Topological Photonics
About Prof. Szameit Alexander Szameit received his Diploma, his PhD and his Habilitation in 2004, 2007, and 2015, respectively, at the Friedrich-Schiller-University in Jena, Germany. From 2009-2011 he was a Postdoc at the Technion, Israel and returned in 2011 to Jena where he works as Assistant Professor since then. The focus of his work is on integrated waveguide circuits for classical and quantum light. Recent highlights of his work are the first photonic topological insulator, the experimental demonstration of the Boson sampling protocol, a new world record in the generation of high-order W-states, and the first experimental demonstration of an unphysical phenomenon. His work was awarded several time, including the dissertation prize of the German Physical Society 2008, the OSA Adolph Lomb Medal 2014, and the Rudolph Kaiser Award for experimental physics 2015